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How is psychology different from philosophy?
a)
Psychology uses the scientific method to answer questions.
b)
Psychology is interested in questions related to human behavior.
c)
There is no difference between philosophy and psychology.
d)
The field of psychology is much older than the field of philosophy.

A)
Psychology bases its answers on observations, while philosophy answers its questions using logic and reasoning. Both fields are interested in human behavior. The field of psychology is only 125 years old, while philosophy is much older

The first psychology laboratory was opened in ________ in order to study ___________.
a)
1865; psychological disorders
b)
1946; learning
c)
1879; introspection
d)
1809; biopsychology

c
Wilhelm Wundt opened his laboratory in Germany in 1879 and used the method of introspection to study the basic elements of mental processes

The psychological perspective of structuralism focused on
a)
how the whole structure is bigger than the individual parts.
b)
understanding each individual structure of human thought.
c)
how mental thought helps us structure our daily activities.
d)
the structure of society at large.

b
Structuralists felt that mental processes had to be broken down into their most basic or elemental form in order to be understood.

The school of psychology called structuralism used a technique called _____, which involved reporting the contents of consciousness to study a person's experiences.
a)
intervention
b)
introspection
c)
insight inventory
d)
induction

b
Introspection was used in an attempt to self-examine the structure of the mind. Although the word intervention looks similar, it has a completely different meaning

William James believed that mental processes could not be studied as isolated, static events but instead needed to be viewed in terms of how they helped people perform in their daily lives. James was a strong proponent for
a)
structuralism.
b)
functionalism.
c)
behaviorism.
d)
the humanistic perspective.

b
James believed we need to understand the function of mental processes.

Gestalt psychologists are associated with which of the following sayings?
a)
The pineal gland is the seat of the human soul.
b)
Psychology should reach into the soul of mankind.
c)
Behavior should be broken down into its individual components.
d)
The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

d
Gestalt psychologists believed that you had to look at the whole picture in order to understand the larger processes of perception and sensation and that it could not be broken down into its smaller components without losing its essence.

Freud said phobias were ____________ whereas Watson said phobias were __________.
a)
learned; inherited
b)
repressed conflicts; learned
c)
sexual; unconscious
d)
conditioned; unconditioned

b
Freud studied repressed (unconscious) conflict and Watson studied observable behavior. Watson did not believe that the unconscious could be studied scientifically.

A researcher who studies the chemical changes in the brains of patients with depression would be approaching psychology from which perspective?
a)
behaviorist
b)
psychodynamic
c)
cognitive
d)
biopsychological

d
The biopsychological perspective focuses on studying the biological changes that underlie behavior and mental processes.

One of the reasons psychodynamic theories have persisted over the years is that they are
a)
supported by significant scientific research.
b)
based on facts.
c)
difficult to scientifically test and, thus, difficult to disprove.
d)
used by the majority of psychologists.

c
Since it is very hard to scientifically test the psychodynamic theories there is little scientific data to support the theories.

A humanistic psychologist would be interested in which of the following research studies?
a)
describing a group of people who claim to have reached their full potential
b)
understanding the role of the unconscious in a child's decision to disobey her parents
c)
investigating the role of hormones in the mating behavior of birds
d)
figuring out visual illusions are possible

a
The humanistic perspective focuses on the uniqueness and potential of human beings and tries to suggest ways for humans to maximize their potential.

Taylor received her degree from a medical school and now meets with patients on a daily basis. Most of her patients have a serious psychological disorder and often Taylor will prescribe medication to treat the disorder. Taylor is a
a)
psychologist.
b)
psychiatrist.
c)
psychiatric social worker.
d)
school nurse.

b
Psychiatrists have M.D.s, counsel patients with serious disorders, and can prescribe medications.

Vido has an M.S.W. and is interested in working on the causes of poverty. What type of professional is Vido most likely to become?
a)
educational psychologist
b)
psychiatrist
c)
school psychologist
d)
psychiatric social worker

d
Psychiatric social workers typically have their Masters of Social Work (M.S.W.) and counsel patients with less severe disorders or focus on social issues such as poverty.

Why do psychologists use the scientific method?
a)
It is easier to use than other methods.
b)
All academic fields must use the scientific method.
c)
It is the only method available to answer questions.
d)
It reduces bias and error in measurement.

d
The scientific method is based on observations so that the influence of the researcher's bias is minimized.

Deb spent the entire day at the park observing children with their parents to see whether fathers or mothers spent more time playing with their kids. Deb used the method of
a)
naturalistic observation.
b)
laboratory observation.
c)
survey.
d)
case study.

a
Naturalistic observation consists of recording behaviors as they occur in their normal settings

Which of the following topics would be best studied using the case study method?
a)
the reaction times of adults in a stressful situation
b)
the sleep pattern of adolescents
c)
the impact of club sports involvement on female adolescent self-esteem
d)
the personality characteristics of a man accused of killing five people

d
A case study focuses on one individual (or "case") and provides a detailed description of that individual.

A group of randomly selected subjects that matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex is called
a)
volunteer bias.
b)
a representative sample.
c)
the experimental group.
d)
the control group

b
A representative sample is a randomly selected group that matches the population on important characteristics. An experimental group is not necessarily representative of the population.

Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the strongest relationship between two variables?
a)
+0.62
b)
-0.98
c)
+0.01
d)
+1.24

b
The correlation coefficient must be between +1.00 and -1.00. The sign of the coefficient indicates the direction of the relationship and the absolute value of the coefficient indicates the strength; therefore, 0.98 is the largest absolute value listed between 0 and 1.

A researcher finds that as the number of classes missed increases, the students' grades decrease. This is an example of a
a)
positive correlation.
b)
negative correlation.
c)
zero correlation.
d)
case study.

b
For a negative correlation, the variables move in the opposite direction. As one variable increases the other one decreases. In this case, as the number of absences increase the grade in class decreases.

Marcy is trying to define anxiety in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate
a)
hypothesis.
b)
operational definition.
c)
double-blind study.
d)
theory.

b
An operational definition defines responses in terms that allow them to be measured, while a hypothesis is an educated guess, not a definition.

A researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment?
a)
The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise.
b)
The independent variable is calories consumed; the dependent variable is diet.
c)
The independent variable is weight; the dependent variable is calories consumed.
d)
The dependent variable is amount of exercise; the independent variable is calories consumed.

a
The exercise is controlled by the experimenter and is, therefore, independent of anything the participants do, while the participants' weight is expected to depend on the amount of exercise.

In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the group that smokes the cigarette without nicotine is
a)
the control group.
b)
the driving simulator.
c)
the experimental group.
d)
the no-control group.

a
A control group gets either no treatment or treatment that has no effect (in this case, experimenters are controlling for the possibility that the cigarette itself, and not the nicotine, might cause people to get into collisions).

A psychology professor feels that her students will do better on her exams if music is playing while they take their exams. To test her hypothesis she divides her class in half. One half takes the exam in a room with music playing and the other half takes the exam in a similar room but without the music playing. In this case, the independent variable is
a)
the time of day when the exam is taken.
b)
the absence or presence of music playing.
c)
the exam.
d)
the students' scores on the exam.

b
The independent variable is the variable the researcher manipulates. In this case, the instructor manipulated whether music was playing.

A psychology professor feels that her students will do better on her exams if music is playing while they take their exams. To test her hypothesis she divides her class in half. One half takes the exam in a room with music playing and the other half takes the exam in a similar room but without the music playing. In this case, the dependent variable is
a)
the room the exam is taken in.
b)
the absence or presence of music playing.
c)
the exam.
d)
the students' scores on the exam.

d
Recall the test phrase, "How ________(i.v.) affects __________ (d.v.). The professor is testing "How music affects student test scores." The dependent variable is the subjects' responses. The room the test is taken in and the test itself should be the same for both groups.

Twenty volunteers are brought into a sleep laboratory in the evening. Ten are allowed eight hours of sleep while the other ten are only allowed two hours of sleep. In the morning, all 20 subjects are tested for their reaction time in a driving simulation program. For this experiment, the reaction time in the simulation program is the
a)
independent variable.
b)
dependent variable.
c)
confounding variable.
d)
random variable.

b
The reaction time is the response observed in the subject. It is not manipulated by the experimenter

Twenty volunteers are brought into a sleep laboratory in the evening. Ten are allowed eight hours of sleep while the other ten are only allowed two hours of sleep. In the morning, all 20 subjects are tested for their reaction time in a driving simulation program. For this experiment, the amount of sleep allowed is the
a)
independent variable.
b)
dependent variable.
c)
confounding variable.
d)
random variable.

a
Recall the test phrase, "How hours slept affect driving reaction time."

Which of the following situations best illustrates the placebo effect?
a)
You sleep because you are tired.
b)
You throw up after eating bad meat.
c)
You have surgery to repair a defective heart valve.
d)
You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become "intoxicated" because you think it contains alcohol.

d
The placebo effect is brought on by expectations, and in this case you felt drunk only because you believed you were drinking alcohol.

______________________ is an experiment in which neither the participants nor the individuals running the experiment know whether participants are in the experimental or the control group until after the results are tallied.
a)
The double-blind study
b)
Field research
c)
The single-blind study
d)
Correlational research

a
The double-blind study is an experiment in which neither the participants nor the individuals running the experiment know whether the participants are in the experimental or control group. In a single-blind study, only the participants are "blind."

What defines psychology as a field of study

scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Psychology is a science

and what are psychology's four primary goals?

-Description
What is happening?
-Explanation
Why is it happening?
Theory - general explanation of a set of observations or facts
-Prediction
Will it happen again?
-Control
How can it be changed?

How did structuralism and functionalism differ?

Structuralism - focused on structure or basic elements of the mind.
functionalism- focused on how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play.

William Wundt

-STRUCTURALISM
-in 1879 psychology began in his lab
- OBJECTIVE INTROSPECTION

Edward Titchener

-Wundt's student
-STRUCTURALISM IN AMERICA

Margaret Washburn

first woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology.

William James

-FUNCTIONALISM
-Saw the mind as flexible and fluid, constantly changing

What were the basic ideas and who were the important people behind the early approaches known as Gestalt

Gestalt - The sum is greater than its parts.

Wertheimer, who studied sensation and perception

What were the basic ideas and who were the important people behind the early approaches known as psychoanalysis?

Psychoanalysis - the theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud.

-Freud proposed that there is an unconscious (unaware) mind into which we push, or repress, all of our threatening urges and desires.
-He believed that these repressed urges, in trying to surface, created nervous disorders.
-Freud stressed the importance of early childhood experiences.

What were the basic ideas and who were the important people behind the early approaches known as behaviorism?

Behaviorism - the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only.
-Proposed by John B. Watson.
-Based much from work of Ivan Pavlov who demonstrated that a reflex could be conditioned (learned).
-Watson believed that phobias were learned.
-Case of "Little Albert" - taught to fear a white rat.

what are the 7 mondern perspectives?

1. psychodynamic
2. behavioral
3. humanistic
4. biopsychology
5. cognitive
6. socicultural
7. evolutionary

what is the psychodynamic perspective?

the development of a sense of self & the discovery of motivations behind a person's behavior other than sexual motivations

what is the behavioral perspective?

behavioral responses that are followed by pleasurable consequences are reinforced

what is the humanistic perepective?

people have free will

what is the cognitive perspective

focus on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, & learning

what is the sociocultural perspective?

focus of the relationship & culture

what is the biopsychological perspective?

humans & animal behavior to biological events occuring in the body. such as genetic influences, hormones, & the activity of the nervous system.

what is the evolutionary perspective?

focus of the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share.

How does a psychiatrist differ from a psychologist, and what are the other types of professionals who work in the various areas of psychology?

- psychologists have academic degrees and can do counseling, teaching, and research and may specialize in any one of a large number of areas within psychology.

-psychiatrists are medical doctors who provide diagnosis and therapy for persons with mental disorders.

Why is psychology considered a science, and what are the steps in using the scientific method?

1.Perceiving the Question
2.Forming a Hypothesis
3.Testing the Hypothesis
4.Drawing Conclusions
5.Report Your Results

What is the correlational technique, and what does it tell researchers about relationships?

Correlation = Relationship!!!!!!

positive correlation (same direction) increases in one variable are matched by increases in the other variable

negative correlation (different direction) increases in one variable are matched by decreases in the other variable.

Experiment

a deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of cause-and-effect relationships.

Operational definition

definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured.

Independent variable (IV)

variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter.

Dependent variable (DV)

variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment.

Experimental group

subjects in an experiment who are subjected to the independent variable.

Control group

subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a placebo treatment (controls for confounding variables).

Random assignment

process of assigning subjects to the experimental or control groups randomly, so that each subject has an equal chance of being in either group

What are the ethical concerns when conducting research with people and animals?

Critical thinking - making reasoned judgments.

structure of a neuron - how a message is sent

action potential is the release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge w/i the axon.

A NEURON EITHER FIRES COMPLETELY OR DOES NOT FIRE AT ALL.

neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE function

memory, stimulates movement

neurotransmitter SEROTONIN function

mood, sleep, appetite

nerotransmitter GABA function

sleep and inhibits movement

neurotransmitter GLUTAMATE function

memory formation

neurotransmitter NOREPINEPHRINE function

arousal, mood

neurtotransmitter DOPAMINE function

control of movement, sensations, pleasure

neurotransmitter ENDORPHINS function

pain relief

SOMATIC

Sensory information and controls skeletal muscles

AUTONOMIC

automatically regulates glands, internal organs and blood vessles, pupil dialation, digestion and blood pressure

developmental psychologist

studies the changes in the ways people think, relate to others, and feel as they age.

clinical psychologist

diagnoses and treats people with psychological disorders

couseling psychologist

helps people with problems of adjustment

educational psychologist

researches human learning and develops methods and material to aid in the process of learning

forensic psychologist

works with the legal system including profiling of criminals, jury selection, and expert witnessing.

industrial / organizational psychologist

researches the relationship between individuals and their work environment

school psychologist

works directly in the schools, dooing assessments, educational placement, and diagnosing educational problems

social psychologist

focus on how human behavior is affected by the presence of other people.

sports psychologist

helps atheletes and others prepare themselves mentally for participation in sports activities

experimental psychologist

researches and experiments in the areas of learning, memory, thinking, perception, motivation, and language.

the science of ________ that focuses on that which must be directly seen and able to be measured.

behaviorism

defined as to home the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play, it is called

functionalism

this type of psychology gocused on the structure or basic elements of the mind and is called

structuralism

the definition of ________ is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

psychology

the general explanation of a set of observations or facts is called

theory

________ ideas are now part of the study of cognative psychology, a field focusing not only perception but also on learning, memory, thought processes, and problem solving

gestalt

_______ was the theory and thearpy based on the work of Sigmond Freud.

psychoanalysis

______ held the view that people have FREE WILL , the freedom to choose their own destiney

humanism

the ______ perspective focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning

cognitive

a system of explaining human behavior that is not based on or consistent with scientific evidence is

psedopsychology

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