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Prenatal Development is divided into ___ main periods. The first two weeks of development are called the ____ period; the __ week through the ___ week is known as the ___ period; and from this point until birth is the _____ period.

3; germinal; 3-8; embryonic;fetal

Once clusters of cells begin to take on distinct characteristics, the cell mass is called a ______. About one week after conception, the multiplying cells seperate into outer cells that will become the _____ and inner cells form the nucleus that will become the _______.

blastocyst; placenta; embryo

The next significant event is the burrowing of the zygote into the lining of the uterus a process called _____. This process _______ automatics.

implantation; is not

At the begining of the period of the embryo a thin line down the middle of the developing individual forms a structure that will become the _____ ______, which becomes the ____ ____ and eventually will develop into the ___ ___ ___.

primitive streak; neural-tube; central nervous system

Eight weeks after conception, the embryo weighs about ______ and is about ________ in length.From the start of the ninth week after conception until birth, the organism is called the ______.

1/30 ounce(1 gram); 1 inch; fetus

The genital organs are fully formed by _____weeks. If the fetus has a ______ chromosome, the ______ genes on this chromosome sends a signal that development of the ______ sex organs. Without that gene, no signal is sent and the fetus develop _____ sex organs.

12;Y; SRY; male; female

By the end of the _______ month, the fetus is fully formed, weighs approximately _____, and is about ____ long. These figures ____ from fetus to fetus.

3rd; 3 ounces; 3 inches; vary

During the fourth fifth and sixth month the brain increases in size by a factor of _____. The brain develops neurons in a process called ______ and new connections between them in a process called ________. This neurological maturation is essential to the regualtion of such basic body functions as _____ and _______.

six; neurogenesis; synaptogenesis; breathing; sucking

The age at which the fetus has some chance of surviving outside the uterus is called ____ ___ ___, which occurs about ____ weeks after conception. This barrier _____ been reduced by advances in neonatal care, probably because maintaining life depends on some _____ response.

age of viability; 22; has not; brain

At about _____ weeks after conception, brain wave patterns begin to resemble the ___ -___ cycles of a new born.

28; sleep-wake

At 28 weeks old fetus typically weighs about ____ and has about a ____ percent chance of survival .

3 pounds; 95

Three crucial aspects of development in the last month of prenatal life are maturation of the ____,____, and _____ systems.

neuroligical; respitory; cardiovascular

By full term, brain growth is so extensive that the brains advanced outer layer, called the ___ forms several folds in order to fit into the skull.

cortex

In the final ____ months, the fetus hears amny sounds, including, the mother's ____ and ___ as well as her ______.

three; heartbeat; voice; smells

I weigh about 3 lbs. and my brain is developing well as a result of the processes of ______ and _____. I am a _____.

neurogenesis; synoptses; fetus

Karen and brad report to their neighbors that , 6 weeks after conception a sonagram will reveal their babies sex organs, they are skeptical of this because...

the fetus does not begin to develop female sex organs until 8 weeks

Harmful agents and conditions that can result in birth defects called ______ include ________________________.

teratogans; viruses, drugs, chemicals; pollutants; extreme stree and maturation

Substance that impair the childs action and intellect by harming the brain are called ____ _____. Approx. ____ % of all children are born with behavioral difficulties that could be connected to damage done during the prenatal period.

behavioral teratogans; 20

The study of birth defects is called ____; it is science of _____ _____. As such it attempts to evalutate the factors that can make prenatal harm more or less likely to occure.

teratology; risk analysis

Three crucial factors that determine whether a specific teratogan will cause harm and of what nature are the _____ of exposure, the _____ of exposure and the developing organsisims ______ _____ to damage from the substance.

timing; amount; genetic vulnurability

The time when a particular part of the body is most suseptible to teratogenic damage is called its _________. For physical structure and form this is the netire period of the ______. However for ____ teratogans the entire prenatal period is critical.

critical period; embryo; behavioral

Some teratogans have a _____ effect- that is, the substances are harmless until exposure reaches a certain level. Others have an ______ effect, which occurs when some teratogans taken together make them more harmful then when taken seperately.

threshold; interaction

Fraternal twins, who share half their genes, ______ have the same abnormalities if exposed to the same teratogans. This suggests the existance of both ____ and ____ genes.

will not; protective; volnurable

Genes are also known to effect the likelihood of neural-tube defects such as _____ ______ or _____. These defects occur more commonly in certain groups. However if pregant women consume extra _____ ____, her embryo would get enough vitamin B to develop normally.

spina bifidia; microcephaly; ethnic; follic acid

Genetic vulnurability is also related to the sex of the developing organism. Generally ______ embryos and fetuses are more volnurable to teratogans. This sex also has more frequent ______ ____ and higher rate of birth defects ____ ____ and other behavior problems.

male' spontaneous abortion; learning disabilities

Women are advised to avoid all _________ before becoming pregant. Prenatal development can also be impaired by _____ _____.

drugs; chemicals in pestacides, constructionmaterials and cosmetics; prescription drugs

High dose of alchohal during pregancy may cause ______ _____ _____. A milder condition that involves emotional and cognitive problems in older children is ______ ______ ________.

fetal alchohal syndrome; fetal alchohal effects

One advantage of early prenatal care is protection against ______. An image of the fetus is called _____, allows doctors to see if the fetus is developing normally.

teratogans; sonogram

A number of tests are preformed routinely to determine wether a prenancy is problematic. Among them are ____-___ ____, which test for neural-tube defects and ______ which shows chromosomal abnormalities and other genetic and prenatal problems.

alpha-fetaprotien assay;amniocenteses

Although pediatrics AIDS has almost dissapeared from ______ ____ and ____, it is still on the rise in _______.

North america; europe; africa

Most fetuses _____ during the last month of prenancy. About 1 in 20 babies is born "_____", with buttocks or rarely feet first. Worse is a ______ ______ in which the fetus turns sideways.

change; breech; transverse lie

About ____ weeks after conception the fetal brain signals the release of certain _____ into the mothers bloodstream, which triggers her _____ ______ to contract and relax. The normal birth process begins when these contractions become regular. The average length of labor is _____ hours for first births and ____ hours for subsequent births.

38;hormones; uterine muscle; 12;7

In developed nations the newborn is usually rated on the _____ ______, which assigns a score of either 0,1,2 to each of the following five characteristics __________________. A score below _______ indicates that the newborn is in critical condition and requires immediate attention ; if the score is ____ or better all is well. This rating is made twice, at _____ minute after birth and again at _____ min.

apgar scale; heart rate, breathing, skin tone, muscle tone, and reflexes; 4; 7; one; five

The birth experience is influenced by several factors, including ____ ______.

parents preparation for birth, the physical and emotional support, posotion and size of fetus, the customs of culture.

In about 31 percent of U.S births a surgical procedure called a _____ _____ is performed.

ceasarian section

A growing number of north american mothers today use a professional birth coach, or _______ to assist them.

doula

The disorder ___ ____, which affects motor centers in the brain often results from ______ vulnurability, worsened by exposure to _____ and a pattern birth that involves ____, a temporary lack of ______ during birth.

cerebral pulsy; genetic; teratogans; anoxia; oxygen

Babies who are born 3 or more weeks before the standard 38 weeks have elapsed are called ______.

preterm

Infants who weigh substancely less then they should given how much time has passed since conception are called ___ ___ ____ ____.

small for gestational age.

Cause SGA include problems with the ____ or ______ ____, as well as maternal illness. However maternal _____ use is a more common reason. About 25 percent of all LBW births are linked to maternal use of ______. prescription drugs can also cause low birthweight.

placenta; umbilical cord; drug; tabacco

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