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McWills :)

"price revolution"

steady move toward a nation centered government and capitalism resulting from inflation and a growing population in Europe from the fourteenth to the nineteenth century

guild

organization of craftsmen that produced common articles for local use in the Middle Ages

entrepreneur

business man that starts his own business; became prominent in European commercial lives; Medici biggest and most successful entrepreneurs of Italy, Fuggers of Germany

"usury"

Catholic law that said lending out money with interest was illegal; was allowed in Judaism and the Protestant faiths, bringing about more economic success after the Reformation

commercial capitalism

economic system in which people invest in trade or goods to make a profit; seen during the Commercial Revolution with the rise of banks and insurance companies

mercantilism

an economic system that started to develop after the Renaissance and fall of feudal lords; belief that trade would bring profit; had strict government regulation; used to establish favorable balance of trade, develop agriculture and manufacture more products, and create foreign monopolies

favorable balance of trade

exporting finished goods and not raw materials and importing as little as possible; other countries would have to pay their debts in bullion, or gold and silver

internal tariffs

provincial and municipal tariffs that existed from previous times where business was city centered; mercantilists wanted to rid countries of these so that free trading was allowed between states

chartered trading companies

created by countries, mostly England, to find other peoples and place to trade with, obtain goods from, and bring back gold and silver

Yeoman

a class of small freeholders between the landed gentry and the rural poor that developed in England

Poor Law of 1601

forced people to work and relieve absolute destitution in an attempt to make the nation of England as productive as possible by making the impoverished work if possible as thought by the idea of mercantilism

bourgeois

French word for middle class; person living in a chartered town or borough and enjoying its liberties or a whole social class made of these people; Marx changed the meaning of this word later to mean the laboring poor that were likely to go hungry

Ursuline sisters

A group of Catholic women that were formed during the Catholic Anti reformation; put an emphasis on schooling and missionary work

"plebeians"

whole middle class from big merchants down to modest levels; about half the Oxford class from 1560 1600

hereditary subjugation

the name given to serfdom in Germany; serfs could not leave the manor, marry, or learn a trade without the lord's express permission

Junker

a German nobleman or aristocrat; enjoyed an expanse of wealth and social superiority; owned land

Elite

the richer class in the eighteenth century; very distinct from the popular, or peasant, culture; had wealth, social position, and power; lived in comparative luxury to the peasants

Hogarth

an English artist in the 18th century who is most famous for his paintings of popular culture; especially the painting of Gin Street

carnival

several weeks preceding Lent; came from the Italian carne vale meaning "farewell to meat"; time for big eating and heavy drinking; general merrymaking and foolery

mountebank

basically a quack that made business at the carnivals; would sell miracle medicine while cracking jokes from a stage; usually his tricks caught the uneducated common class

popular culture

Way of life for the mass of population in 17th and 18th centuries; included pastimes, beliefs, festivals, superstitions; much more poor than the elite culture

"the world turned upside down"

a common theme of festivals; everyone was done backwards; males dressed as females and vice versa; horses were ridden backwards; made for defying custom and ridiculing authority; may have been an expression of genuine resentment

patois

local dialect; spoken by the popular culture; varied greatly within countries; the elite were educated, reducing the differences in patois

nonconformists

Succeeded the Puritans in England after the Stuart line was Restored; became a middle class and had a culture different from Gentry; did not have religion as a big portion of their culture

Domestic system

economic system in England that basically consisted of outsourcing to the country; merchants wanted to have more control than the guild system gave them; industry was therefore given to country workers, especially women who became spinners; really only happened in England, not other countries

mercantilism

economic system of most countries in Europe for quite some time; wanted to create favorable balance of trade by exporting as many goods as possible and importing as little as possible; favored international tariffs and growth of industry; also caused the search for colonies, as they could be monopolized with trade

East India Company

ship companies owned by countries in Eastern trade routes; generally giant fleets that competed with each other for dominance in the sea; tended to have almost their own government system to protect themselves; biggest fleets belonged to the Dutch, French, and English

plantation economy

a step toward Medieval feudalism; indigo, sugar, and tobacco plantations were created in the Western Indies; powered by slaves shipped from Africa, who were banded to their owners rather than the land

Quattrocento

Italian word for the fifteenth century

Duke of Orleans

given the French government after Louis XIV, although he never had the title of king; admitted the aristocracy to a greater share of power; sold judgeships and titles to nobility to raise money; had to go through committees of angry noblemen

the Regency

word to describe the situation when the heir to the throne is too young to physically rule; how the Duke of Orleans got his power (LouisXIV's grandson Louis XV was only five)

Whigs

a party in England; a minority; consisted of land owning nobility and wealthy merchants; generally controlled house of lords; did not want to agree to Utrecht

Tories

were in power in the House of Commons at the time of the Peace of Utrecht; tended to consist of more rural nobles and yeoman; suspicious of the aristocracy

Jacobites

supporters of James III, also known as the fake king; wanted to bring him back to the English throne thinking that he would give up Catholicism

"South Sea bubble"

due to the lack of a strong banking system in Wealthy France, this was the period of time that most of the economy was owned and run privately; dissolved in 1720

Cardinal Fleury

minister to Louis XV in his older age; the king was lazy, but he too did not have an eye for the future, creating weak French leadership

George I

Queen Anne was the last of the Stuarts; after her, George from Hanover was the closest relative to rule the throne; he was German, and stayed German during his rule; appointed German ministers and did not rule England with a firm hand, giving parliament a chance to gain power

Robert Walpole

kept out of the bubbles; supported the Bank of England; kept property taxes low; eventually became the first Prime Minister and created the cabinet system; created English credit

War of Jenkins Ear

Jenkin complained to Parliament about how the Spanish were treating the English; Parliament goes to war over it, despite the fact Warpole did not want to; claimed the Spaniards cut off his ear and kept it in a box with him

Frederick II

Ruler of Prussia; became a cynic after a hard childhood; kept the army strong; invaded Austria when Maria Theresa took the throne despite Pragmatic Sanction

Maria Theresa

an extremely loving mother; when the Prussians invaded Austria during her rule, she convinced her troops to rally by giving a passionate speech; a very practical ruler, kept the Habsburgs together during the War of Austrian Succession; lost Silesia, however, disappointing her

Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

ended the War of Austrian Succession; signed between France and England and Maria Theresa had to comply; was more of an armistice than an actual solution to the war; Maria Theresa still wanted to regain Silesia and the French and English continued to have the same conflicts over the Habsburg line and certain territories

Peter III

Russian Tsar who pulled out of the Seven Year's War, saving his country from the wrath of Prussia

William Pitt

successful English General in the Seven Years' War; won Quebec in North America and several slave stations in Africa

Robert Clive

clerk for the British East India Company; was skilled in military and politics; was opposed by the people in Calcutta who supported the French; worked out of Bengal

French and Indian Wars

the Seven Years' War; French and American Natives fought against the British over colonies in North America

Battle of Plassey

Clive succeeds in gaining complete control of Bengal and puts a puppet leader in control, kicking out the native leader

Treaty of Paris of 1763

all French territory east of the Mississippi goes to Great Britain; British also get French slave posts in Africa; France keeps Pondicherry in India but cannot fortify it

Leonardo da Vinci

(1452-1519), Italian painter, scientist, and engineer. His paintings include The Last Supper (1498) and the Mona Lisa (1504-05). He devoted himself to a wide range of other subjects, from anatomy and biology to mechanics and hydraulics

Castiglione

Italian humanist; wrote Book of the Courtier

Medici Family

merchant family in Florence that became wealthy and ruled the citystate

Raphael

Italian painter and architect; created The School of Athens

Last Supper

Da Vinci's paintings of Jesus Christ and his followers

Virtu

the quality of being a man

Michelangelo

Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet; painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

The Book of the Courtier

by Castiglione; outlined the proper way for men and women to act during the Renaissance

condottiere

a leader of a troop of mercenaries in Italy

Lorenzo Valla

humanist critic; analyzed the Donation of Constantine and proved it was forged

The Prince

Machiavelli's handbook for the best way for a monarch to rule; wanted to unite Italy

Petrarch

The Father of Humanism; wrote many Italian sonnets

Pico della Mirandola

humanist that wrote the "Oration of the Dignity of Man" and stressed the importance of philosophy

Christian humanism

literature written to deepen the understanding of humanity

Meister Eckhart

German Roman Catholic theologian and mystic; well known for his work with several lay religions and small inquisitions

Imitation of Christ

Christian devotional book by Thomas a Kempis

Regiomontanus

German scientific worker who laid the foundations for the mathematical conception of the universe

Thomas a Kempis

German humanist that wrote Imitation of Christ

Praise of Folly

catalyzed Protestant reformation

Nicholas of Cusa

a Rhinelander whose mystical philosophy entered into the later development of mathematics and science

Sisters of the Common Life

a lay religious sisterhood founded by Gerard Groote that lived religiously without vows to the church

Handbook of a Christian Knight

written by Eramus of Rotterdam; showed how a man may take part in the affairs of the world while remaining a devout Christian

Copernicus

HRE scientist that believed the Earth rotated around the sun

Brothers of a Common Life

a lay religious brotherhood founded by Gerard Groote that lived religiously without vows to the church

Modern Devotion

schools with emphasis on Christian ideal of character and conduct, to instill such qualities as humility, tolerance, reverence, love of one's neighbor, and the conscientious performance of duty

Dr. Faustus

a man who was rumored to have sold his soul to the devil in exchange for knowledge

Gerard Groote

a lay preacher who founded the Brothers and Sisters of Common Life

Henry VII

first of the Tudor line; put an end to the civil turbulence of the Wars of the Roses; passed laws against "livery and maintenance"; created the star chamber

Tudors

Ruling family in the New Monarchies of England

Spanish Inquisition

tried to rid Jews and Muslims from Spain

Louis XI

new monarch of France; built up a royal army, suppressed brigands, and subdued rebellious nobles; gained powers to raise taxation without parliamentary consent

"livery and maintenance"

the practice by which the great lords maintained private armies wearing their own livery or insignia

conquest of Granada

defeat that allowed Spain to be united by the Roman Catholic religion

Ferdinand and Isabella

rulers of Spain who united the country with their marriage; paid Christopher Columbus to discover the New World

Moriscos

Christians of Moorish background

Maximilian I

ruler of the Holy Roman Empire; divided it into administrative "circles" and an Imperial Chamber and Council; strategically married people

Star Chamber

court to deal with property disputes and infractions of the public peace; represented the authority of the king and his council and it operated without a jury

Marrano

Christians of Jewish background

Charles V

thanks to Maximilian's marriages he inherited Austria, the Netherlands, Burgundy, Spain, Spanish America, parts of Italy and the Mediterranean, and was elected the Holy Roman Emperor

Concordant of Bologna

pope received money income from French ecclesiastics while the king appointed bishops and abbots

imperial knights

nobles of the Holy Roman Empire that served the emperor

War of the Roses

war in England between the Houses of York and Lancaster over the English throne

Grand Monarque

a nickname for Louis XIV; means great monarch in French

Sun King

another nickname for Louis XIV; implied, like the sun, he is the center of the universe

Charles II of Spain

sickly and senile; proof that inbreeding is not the way to go; could not produce any heirs; Louis XIV married his sister in hopes of taking over the throne

Franche Comte

Free County of Burgundy; a French-speaking region lying between ducal Burgundy and Switzerland; Louis XIV wanted this territory to expand France's borders, but it would mean dismemberment of the HRE

"universal monarchy"

a political situation in which one state might subordinate all others to its will; Louis XIV and France could have potentially been a universal monarchy if Louis XIV gained control of Spain and split Habsburg empire; Balance of Power is used against potential universal monarchs

Estates-General of the United Provinces

name of the Dutch government during its golden age; republican, with representatives from various Dutch provinces

Arminians

a Calvinist religion tolerated in the Netherlands; favored a toning down of the doctrine of absolute and unconditional predestination; gained main support from the burghers; doctrines from a theologian of Leyden named Arminius, whose ideas were condemned at an international Calvinist synod in 1618 but were tolerated in 1632

Bank of Amsterdam

created by the Dutch; allowed checks; set up system for international currency conversions; loaned and insured people; largely the reason for Dutch success

House of Orange

usually elected as a type of leader of the whole United Provinces; prestigious family; had some military control but constantly competed with commercial class and burghers for power

William III

Born into the House of Orange; not what you would call a natural born leader; he hated flattery and socializing; extremely Calvinist; opposite of Louis XIV; married king of England's niece, Mary Stuart

English Navigation Act of 1651

aimed against the Dutch carrying trade; said goods imported into England and its colonies must be transported on English ships or on ships belonging to the exporting country; hurt Dutch/English relationships causing three wars between the two nations

English-Dutch wars

ran from 1652 to 1674 with interruptions; generally indecisive; started with Dutch anger toward English Navigation Act of 1651; 1664 England annexed New Amsterdam and renamed it New York

Treaty of Nimwegen

peace between Dutch and Louis XIV; Dutch allied with England, Denmark, and Hapsburgs, an alliance Louis XIV could not compete with

hereditary stadholders

in the Estates General of the United Provinces each representative was a stadholder; after fighting wars with Louis XIV, six Dutch provinces decided to elect the House of Orange prince as stadholder, and made stadholdership heredeitary

Hugo Grotius

a writer in the Dutch Golden Age; wrote Law of War and Peace, a pioneering treatise on international law

Baruch Spinoza

born into a family of refugee Portuguese Jews; quietly turned out works of philosophy, examining the nature of reality, human conduct, and church and state; made a living by grinding lenses

Christian Huyghens

the greatest Dutch scientist; worked mainly in physics and mathematics; improved telescope, made clocks move with pendulums, discovered the rings of Saturn, and launched the wave theory of light

Puritan

wanted to clear England of all Catholic beliefs; a Calvinist group

Presbyterian

Puritans in Scotland; Spread under John Knox; became official religion of Scotland

Anglican

England's church created under Queen Elizabeth the first to unit the nation; included aspects of protestant Calvinist churches and the Catholic church; Puritans wanted to get rid of the Catholic aspects of the church

James VI of Scotland

James I of England; son of Mary Stuart; fan of absolutism; wrote The True Law of Free Monarchy, which to James meant a monarchy free from the control by Parliament, churchmen, or laws and customs of the past

The True Law of Free Monarchy

Book written by King James I of England/ King James VI of Scotland; talked of a monarch that could look after his subjects' welfare as he saw fit, stood above all parties, private interests, and pressure groups; talked about Divine right; extremely absolutist

"tonnage and poundage"

King's taxes on trades that could be levied with out calling Parliament into session

Archbishop Laud

head of Church during Charles I's reign; wanted to rid England of Puritans; sought religious conformity

prerogative courts

courts that consisted of the Star Chamber; not supported by parliament; did not have a jury; were set up to ensure religious conformity in England

ship money case

this refers to the period in which Charles I was forced to spend less money on national defense and the navy as there were a lack of funds

Long Parliament

lasted 20 years; managed to pass laws limiting the power of the king; forced king to summon Parliament every three years and could not dissolve Parliament without its consent

Solemn League and Covenant

allowed a Scottish Presbyterian system to be adopted in England

Roundheads

Puritan supporters in Parliament; fought under Oliver Cromwell in the English Civil Wars; consisted of country land owners and town based manufacturers

Independents

made up most of Cromwell's army; radical Puritans who believed that they were fighting the English Civil War for God

Pride's Purge

Got rid of all the Presbyterian members in Parliament, leaving only 50 to 60 members

the Rump

name for the Parliament after Cromwell's Pride's Purge got rid of all of the Presbyterian members

Levellers

wanted a written document that stated the rights of Englishmen; Cromwell disagreed with them

Diggers

wanted to create an almost communist Utopia; rejected the idea of property by the Bible, and instead set up communities on common lands; not liked by Cromwell

Fifth Monarchy Men

yet another Radical Group under Cromwell; under the Puritan revolution thought that the world was going to end soon

Instrument of Government

Cromwell's constitution that favored toleration in England (other than Catholicism); gave all Christians the right to practice their faith

Charles II

took the English throne after Cromwell died; weary of what happened to his father, he tried to be peaceful with the Parliament and work with them; had shady deals with Catholic France

Dissenters

Puritans that refused to accept the Anglican Church; Parliament then denied them certain rights

Treaty of Dover

secret Treaty between Charles II and Louis XIV to help in the predicted war against the Dutch; not supported by Englishmen who mostly hated Catholics (France was Catholic)

"declaration of indulgence"

Charles II choosing to not enforce laws against Dissenters; he, himself, was making deals with Catholics so he decided it would be best to say that he was religiously tolerant

Test Act

excluded all Catholics from public office; tried to pass a law excluding James, Charles' Catholic brother, from inheriting throne but did not succeed in doing so

Whigs and Tories

Parliament was divided into two groups. Whigs wanted a constitutional monarchy under a Protestant king; Tories were fine with the current king, but did not want Catholicism to take over England

"trial and seven bishops"

refused to support James II's policies, making themselves in support of Catholicism; they were pardoned by the Church of England, but James II ignored this and instead got into an argument with the Church

"Glorious Revolution"

called so because it was like a Revolution with out violence; William, Protestant ruler of Holland, was offered the crown of England as long as he agreed to the Declaration of Rights and the Bill of Rights

William and Mary

offered the English throne after James II because much of England's population feared a Catholic king would destroy the Anglican church and ruin England

Battle of the Boyne

William defeats James II army, sending James fleeing to France

Bill of Rights

a series of laws passed in 1689 that stated that the king could not levy taxes, make laws, or maintain an army with out consent of the Parliament; People were guaranteed basic civil liberties such as freedom of speech, right to petition, and protection against excessive bail or unusual punishment

United Kingdom of Great Britain

merged Ireland, Scotland, and England in 1707

Act of Settlement of 1701

said that no Catholic could take the English throne, negating the constant fear of subjects that a Catholic king would be in line to the throne

Toleration Act

passed in 1689; grated freedom of worship to Protestants who were dissenters from the Church of England; Catholics and Quakers excluded from this act

"penal code" for Ireland

England put in place for Catholic Ireland; weakened Catholics' power so that English citizens would not have to fear Catholics

parlements

French equivalent of a parliament; made local laws that they thought the King couldn't overstep

Fronde

Civil War against Cardinal Mazarin from the nobility and the middle class in revolt to a more centralized government and higher taxes; caused riots in Paris causing Cardinal Mazarin and Louis XIV to flee, but Louis XIV eventually came back as the only goal was to overthrow Mazarin; convinced Louis XIV that an absolute monarch was necessary to avoid anarchy

Cardinal Mazarin

Prime Minister for Louis XIV; tried to continue Richelieu's strategies for centralizing power but lacked his shrewdness; ended up creating a Fronde against him

Bishop Bossuet

one of Louis' advisers; talked about Divine Right of Kings

Divine Right of Kings

said that the king was chosen by God to rule, and only had authority over the king, not parliament or anyone else

Versailles

Louis' expensive palace that held courts and a lot of fountains; he required nobles to live there to lessen their power and keep an eye on them

intendents

royal officials that took the place of Nobles in their duties, including collecting tax, recruiting soldiers, and enforcing Louis XIV's laws

councils of state

similar to a Parliamentary group; had representation from every class and province; not used by Louis XIV

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