The location of the castle in the high mountains of northern Italy where Gregory locked himself for fear of Henry coming to attack him. When Henry arrived, he asked for forgiveness from Gregory. Emperor Henry IV of the HRE stood barefoot and dressed as a pilgrim for three days in the bitter cold waiting for Pope Gregory VII to revoke his excommunication (partially Quizlet)
Cluniac Reform Movement
A reform of the Catholic Church began in Burgundy in eastern France when Duke William of Aquitaine founded the Abbey of Cluny as a cure for the corrupt church. It began with a renewed dedication to the highest spiritual ideals of the Benedictine rule. The Cluniac Reform movement sparked an enthusiastic response in France and all of Western and Central Europe. New monasteries were founded. The pope was not involved, and the abbot was elected by the monks. Everyone in the town had to help (monetary, shelter, food) the monks so they could focus only on praying. (partially Quizlet)
Concordat of Worms
The agreement between a new German king and a new pope; the solution to the Investiture Controversy in which Henry IV and Gregory VII struggled. Under this agreement, a bishop in Germany was first elected by Church officials and then the king invested him with symbols of the earthly office. (partially Quizlet)
Decree given by Pope St. Gregory VII asserting that the pope posses specific powers given by God that rested on him alone. (Quizlet)
Emperor Henry IV
Emperor of Germany and HRE. Fought against Gregory VII over the ban on lay investiture and the powers that the church and emperor (should) have.
Foundation Charter of Cluny
Document giving up the Cluny land to the newly formed Cluniac Church
Hugh of Fleury
The king/emperor has the right to be involved in the church
The process of laymen (non-church officials) having a say in who can become a bishop. A major controversy between Gregory VII and Henry IV.
Jesus told St. Peter, the first pope, to "feed my sheep", which is translated as 'rule on my behalf'. Peter was the first pope, so all subsequent popes have that same power.
Pope Gregory VII
Adamant in his arguments against lay investiture. Took papal powers indirectly
Pope St. Leo IX
Two Swords Argument
Argument in lay investiture that says one person can't hold both swords--spiritual leader and temporal leader cannot be one in the same