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Not including things I personally know very well, but if you want everything, you can go to the individual units.

There are over 6 million organic compounds because...

(1) carbon's unique bonding which allows many atoms to link by covalent bonds (2) isomerism

Carbon's unique bonding properties:

relatively small - only 6e- in 2 shells; forms 4 covalent bonds; can form single, double, and triple bonds

The shape of single bonds are...

tetrahedral

The shape of double bonds are...

trigonal planar

The shape of triple bonds are...

linear

Organic Properties

covalent bonds; high formula weights; low melting and boiling points; mostly non-polar; isomerism

Inorganic Properties

mostly ionic bonds; low formula weight; high melting and boiling points; polar; no isomerism

-NH2

amine

-COOH

carboxyl (acid - always -ic)
C=O
/OH

Alkanes

also known as parafins (wax); relatively inactive - reactions include combustion (burn-synthesis) and halogenation (reacts with Halogens); non-polar; saturated (holding all it can/surrounded); a series of compounds that differ by a regular increment (CH2); general formular - CnH2n_2; compounds...

Alkadiene

unsaturated hydrocarbon with 2 double bonds poly unsaturated

Alcyclins

ringed compounds of carbon and hydrogen; very unstable

Aromatics (smelly)

derived from coal or petroleum; contain benzene

C6H6

triene

aliphatic

relating to or denoting organic compounds in which carbon atoms form open chains (as in the alkanes) not aromatic rings

Solute

the substance being dissolved

Solvent

the substance doing the dissolving

Factors affecting solubility of a solid:

solubility is increased by agitation, increase of surface area, and heating

Factors affecting solubility of a gas

increase pressure, decrease temperature, no agitation

Factors affecting solubility of a liquid

must be miscible (both polar or both nonpolar)

Example of Solid in Liquid

koolaide (sugar in water)

Example of Gas in Liquid

soda (CO2 in H20)

Example of Gas in Gas

air (CO2 in O2)

Example of Liquid in Gas

fog/humidity (H2O in air)

Example of Solid in Solid

alloys (brass - Cu in Zn)

Example of Liquid in Liquid

cream in coffee

Example of Solid in Gas

pollen in air

Molarity

moles of solute/liter of solution - used by small scale chemists

Molality

moles of solute/kg of solvent - use in industry

Normality

like molarity, but used for acids and bases - mostly in the health fields; like molarity (strength) but also takes into consideration the moles of H+ or OH- released

Arrhenius Definition of Acids

any substance that produces or increases H+ ion concentration in an aqueous (water-based) solution, an electrolyte; forms H3O+ (hydronium) ions

H+ ion

proton

Carboxylic

made of hydrogen and COOH (organic)

battery acid is

sulfuric acid

soda is

carbonic acid

stomach acid is

hydrochloric acid

vinegar is

acetic acid

lemon juice is

citric acid

Arrhenius Base (also called alkaline)

any substance that produces or increased OH- ions in an aqueous solution; no special naming, uses stocknames; are electrolytes

Titration

a controlled neutralization reaction where an acid or base whose concentration is known is reacted with an acid or base whose concentration is unknown. In the reaction enough of the known solution is added to totally neutralize the other (forms salt H2O)

(Gas) 3 Parts of Kinetic Theory

(1) Matter is made up of small particles (atoms) (2) Particles are far apart and moving (3) Collisions are elastic (no loss of energy)

(Gas) Properties of Gas

have mass; fill containers completely due to property of expansion; low density (molecules are far apart); compressibility; diffusion (gases move through each other - move from high to low concentration); gases exert pressure (push equally in all directions)

(Gas) What does diffusion depend on?

speed; diameter of particles; attractive forces

(Gas) Volume - state...condensation temperature (the highest temperature at which a gas cannot exist) - at this temperature...

(1) Kinetic Energy decreases (molecules slow down) (2) Attractive forces increase (molecules cling together (3) Vapor liquifies

(Gas) Standard Temperature

0 C, 32 F, 273 K

(Gas) Standard Pressure

the pressure exerted on a column of mercury at sea level; 760 torr, 760mm Hg, 1 atm

(Gas) Charles' Law

the volume of a definite quantity of a gas varies DIRECTLY as its KELVIN temperature

V1T2 = V2T1

(Gas) Boyle's Law

the volume of a definite quantity of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure provided the temperature remains constant

V1P1 = V2P2

(Solids) Kinetic Theory

very dense/closely packed molecules; strong intermolecular forces; molecules merely vibrate around fixed points

Properties of Solids

definite shape and volume; definite/unique melting point; incompressible; low rate of diffusion; low specific heats; amorphous or crystalline

Specific Heat

the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degrees Celsius

Amorphous

without shape (plastics and glass - manmade)

Types of Crystalline Solids

Ionic, Covalent, Molecular (Polar and Nonpolar), Metallic

Ionic

held by ionic bonds (transfer of electrons between a metal and a nonmetal); strong attraction; high melting points (100 - 1000 C); very hard; solids don't conduct electricity, but liquids do; dissolve easily

Covalent (Network) Solids

held by covalent bonds (shared electrons); extremely hard; extremely high melting points (over 1000 C); almost impossible to break bonds; neither solid nor liquid are capable of conducting electricity

Molecular Solids

Polars: weak bond; some electrical attraction; relatively soft; relatively low melting points (0 - 100 C)
Nonpolars: held by weak Van de Waals forces; very soft; undergo sublimation; no electrical attraction

Sublimation

change directly from a solid to a gas without melting

Metallic Solids

held by mobile electrons (bond is similar to ionic); excellent conductors; wide range of melting points and hardness; malleable; ductile; lustrous

malleable

can be flattened into sheets

ductile

can be twisted into wires

(Liquids) Kinetic Theory

have definite volume; takes shape of container (no definite shape); molecules are in motion and experience diffusion; flow due to cohesion (molecules stick to each other); relatively incompressible (relatively high density)

Properties of Liquids

(affected by intermolecular attraction): viscosity; surface tension; vaporization; vapor pressure; volatile

Viscosity

thickness, a resistance to flowing

Surface Tension

force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together (creates an invisible film to hold molecules in); created by cohesion

Vaporization

changing from a liquid to a gas by boiling (at boiling point)

Boiling points...

are listed at STP as atmosphere pressure decreases boiling points decrease

Vapor Pressure

pressure exerted on a closed container (explains why a pot boils faster with a lid on it)

Volatility

how easily something evaporates (goes off to a gaseous state without boiling)

If a substance was held by weak (nonpolar) bonds... its characteristics would be...

low density, low viscosity, low surface tension, low boiling point, high vapor pressure, high volatility

Water Properties (an atypical liquid)

Hydrogen bonding between molecules creates: high surface tension/cohesion; high boiling point; high specific heat; increase in volume and decrease in density with freezing; water freezes from the top down

Kinetic Theory and Phase Changes

As temperature increases bonds are broken, molecules move faster are more disordered and further apart. As temperature decreases attractive forces are increased, bonds are formed, and molecules become more ordered

Calorie

amount of hear needed to raise 1 gram of WATER 1 C

Heat of Fusion

amount of energy needed to liquify a solid (break all of the bonds) while remaining at the melting point
FOR WATER THIS IS 80 cal/gram

Heat of Vaporization

amount of energy needed to turn a liquid to a gas while remaining at the boiling point
FOR WATER THIS IS 540 cal/gram

Law of Conservation of Matter

Matter cannot be created or destroyed, but can merely change forms by chemical reactions

Chemical Reactions

a process in which one or more substances are converted into new substances with different chemical and physical properties

Exothermic

releases heat; bond forming

Endothermic

absorbs heat; bond breaking

Factors Affecting Reaction Rates

Nature of Reactants (covalent bonds take longer to break); Temperature (hotter, faster); Concentration

Catalyst

helps reaction, but is not used up

Metallic carbonates, when heated, decompose to form...

a metallic oxide + carbon dioxide

Metallic hydroxides, when heated, decompose to form....

the metallic oxide + water

Metallic chlorates, when heated, decompose to form...

the metallic chloride + oxygen

Quantum Numbers

mathematical expressions that describe the energy state or election configuration of an atom

Electron Configuration

energy state of an atom

Plank and Schrodinger

Quantum Number developers

Principal Quantum Number

denotes the average distance of the electron from its nucleus (shells, floors)

The first shell is having the lowest energy...

K or 1

Orbital Quantum Number

describes the shape of the electron cloud in each shell or energy level (shapes are designated with cursive lower case letters) (sub-shells, apartments)

s

spherical, 1 orientation

p

dumbbell, 3 orientations

d

5 orientations

f

7 orientations

Magnetic Quantum Number

denotes the position or orientation of the different clouds about a 3D axis (rooms)

Spin Quantum Number

denotes the direction of spin of the electron in each orbital

greatest amount of electrons an orbital can hold

2

In orbitals of equal sharing no pairing of electrons takes place until...

all orbitals of equal energy hold at least 1 electron

Hyberdization

Occurs in columns containing Cr and Cu when the d orbital has 4 or 9 electrons

Orbital Notation

shows exact position of each and every e- and its spin

Electron Configuration

shows the relative positions of all e-s

Electron Dot

shows only the e-s in the outmost shell or energy level

Atom

a neutral particle found naturally whose protons = electrons

Isotope

a neutral particle found naturally whose protons = electrons BUT whose weight and neutrons are changed

Isotopes are usually...

radioactive

Ionization Energy

energy that when added to an atom removes the valence electrons

Electron Affinity

the tendency for an atom to release energy when electrons are added

Ion

particle that is either positively charged or negatively charged because of lost or gained electrons

Nonpolar Covalent

equal sharing (no charge); strongest bond

Polar Covalent

unequal sharing (partial charge)

On the periodic table, the larger elements start from the top/bottom and decreases in size.

bottom

On the periodic table, the larger elements start from the left/right and decreases in size.

left

Chemistry is the study of...

matter and the changes it undergoes

Matter is...

anything that has mass and volume

Mass

the quantity of matter a body possesses

Weight

a measure of the earth's attraction for a body (earth's gravity = 1)

There are...known elements.

115

There are...naturally occurring known elements

92

...of the known elements are man-made

23

Some people believe that...total elements are possible

160

...takes up 49.5% on Earth

Oxygen (O)

...takes up 25.8% on Earth

Silicon (Si)

...takes up 7.5% on Earth

Aluminum (Al)

...takes up 4.7% on Earth

Iron (Fe)

...takes up 3.4% on Earth

Calcium (Ca)

remaining 9% are made up of

the other 87 combined

Democritus

said that things were made out of individual particles

Dalton

Father of Atomic Theory

Dalton's Theory

each element is made of atoms; atoms of a given element are identical, and differ from atoms of other elements; atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions; a given compound always has the same relative numbers and kinds of atoms

Ernest Rutherford

proposed the idea that the atom had a positive dense nucleus and a cloud of weightless negative electrons orbited the nucleus

Niels Bohr

developed the idea that electrons existed at set levels of energy and at fixed distances from the nucleus - shells

Diatomic molecules

2 atoms per molecule

The Periodic Table is constructed in accordance with an element's...

chemical activity or ability to take part in chemical reactions

Families/Groups

columns that run from top to bottom

IA Alkali Metals (Sodium Family)

form acids

IIA Alkaline Earths (Magnesium Family)

form bases

VII Halogens

form salts

VIII Noble, Inert, Rare Gases

inactive, cannot form compounds, scarce

B Columns - Transition Elements

their reactions vary slightly due to their surroundings

Series/Periods

horizontal rows

Series/Periods Sequence

atomic number and mass (mass has few exceptions)

Thomson

discovered electron

Man-made elements are heavier/lighter than those which occur naturally

heavier

Deca (dk_)

10

Deci (d_)

.1

Micro (u_)

.000001

length

in cm; always 2 decimal places

volume

in mL; 1 decimal place in graduated cylinder; 2 decimal places in buret; read meniscus, watch scale

mass

in grams; always 2 decimal places; use balance, calibrate first, move largest weight first

accuracy

close to accepted value (sig figs)

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