-shares in companies
-businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock
-an association to fix prices, set production quotas, or control markets
-huge corporate structures that controlled entire industries or areas of the economy
-pioneered the skyscraper
Define urban renewal
-the rebuilding of poor areas of a city
Define standard of living
-measure the quality and availability of necessities and comforts in a society
What are the three social classes that emerge?
-upper class including the rich business families
-middle class with doctors, scientists
-lower middle class who struggled to keep up with their betters
-workers and peasants (30%)
What are the middle class values?
-strict code of etiquette
-rules how to dress, when to write letters, how long to mourn for lost relatives
-children reflect on their family
What was the ideal home?
-men went to work in office or shop and wife stayed home raising children, directing servants, and doing charity or religious work
-did not apply to working class
Define cult of domesticity
-idealized women and the home
Define temperance movement
-a campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages
Who is Elizabeth Cady Stanton
-crusaded against slavery with Lucretia Mott and Susan B. Anthony before organizing a movement for women's rights
Who is Sojourner Truth?
-African American suffragist who was angry not to be treated as a women
How did education improve?
-teachers received training in order to better teach the students
-education for kids became compulsory
-secondary schools established where they learned languages history and math
-colleges and universities expanded where they learned ancient history, languages, philosophy, religion, law, sciences
Who is Emily Davies?
-campaigned for female students to be able to take an entrance exam for Cambridge University
-male students rioted against granting women degrees
Who is John Dalton?
-English schoolteacher who developed the modern atomic theory
Who is Meneleyev
-drew table that grouped elements according to atomic weight (basis for today's periodic table)
Who is Charles Lyell?
-offered evidence that Earth was formed over millions of years
-successors determined that Earth was at least two billion years old
-ideas went against Bible
Who is Darwin?
-British naturalist who published a book
-believed people evolved over time
-put forward idea of natural selection
What is social darwinism?
-applying the idea of survival of the fittest to war and economic competition
-encouraged racism, the unscientific belief that one racial group is superior to another