Cellular Components (Patho lecture 1)
|Cell Membrane|| Phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins.|
Contains: Polyunsaturated fatty acids, lecithin, cholesterol, vitamin E, transferases (protein carriers).
"Door keeper of cell"
Controls passage of materials into and out of the cell.
Holds the cells together.
|Cytoplasm|| Protoplasm which lies between cell membrane and nucleus.|
Hass cytoskeleton, a network of threadlike and tubelike structures which contribute strength and shape to cell and anchor the organelles.
|Mitochondrion|| Rod-shaped, double membraned organelle packed with enzymes.|
Site of Kreb's Cycle and Electron Transport Chain
SIte of cellular respiration: energy nutrients are oxydized and the energy released is used to make ATP.
|Ribosome|| Granule consisting of rRNA (ribosomal ribonucleic acid) and protein.|
Free ribosomes in cytoplasm synthesize proteins for use inside cell.
Site of protein synthesis (mRNA serves as the template).
|Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)|| Membranes which form an internal transport system|
"Assembly line and transport system"
Synthesizes and transports cellular products. Smooth ER synthesizes phospholipids, steroids, and fatty acids. Rough ER are stubbed with ribosomes which synthesize proteins for export from cell.
|Golgi Body|| Flattened sacs enclosed by membranes.|
"Packing and distribution center"
Stores, modifies, and packages secretory products.
Forms glycoproteins, lipoproteins, and lysosomes.
|Lysosomes|| Contains digestive enzymes which breakdown carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.|
Digestion of old cellular components and worn-out cells.
Digestion of foreign particles or bacteria that may enter the cell.
|Nucleus||Control center of cell.|
Storehouse for genetic information which is vital to cell division and protein synthesis.
Replication of DNA during cell division.
Transcription of the genetic information into mRNA which is translated into cellular protein in the ribosome.
Nuclear membrane (full of pores); nucleoplasm (protoplasm of nucleus); nucleolus (dense area in nucleus where ribosomal RNA is synthesized and the ribosomes are assembled)
Chromosomes which consist of genes.
Gene is a segment of DNA which codes a specific protein.
|Enzyme|| Protein catalyst which facilitates a biochemical reaction and is not destroyed in the process.|
Provides a surface on which other molecules fit into place and react with one another.
Facilitates the making and the breaking of chemical bonds.