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chp 1 lecture

Anatomy

study of body structure

Physical Examination

Use of the techniques of inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation to obtain information about the structure and function of body parts.

Palpation

to examine by touch

Auscultation

a physical examination method of listening to sounds within the body with stethoscope

Percussion

tapping a part of the body for diagnostic purposes

Dissection

Cutting up and separating structures and tissue to examine.

Gross Anatomy

study of the body parts visible to the naked eye

Histology

the study of the microscopic structure of tissues

Physiology

study of how the body functions

Scientific Method

a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions

Inductive method

a process of making numerous observations until one feels confident in drawing generalizations and predictions from them

Hypothetico Deductive Method

Ask a question and develop an experiment to figure out the answer.

Hypothesis

an educated guess

experiment

the testing of an idea

Falsifiability

The requirement that a scientific theory must be stated in a way that it can be tested and disproved if it is indeed wrong

What to consider in an experimental design.

Sample size, variation, control group, treatment group,psychosomatic effects, and experimental bias.

Control group

Receives "0" level treatment and placebos

Treatment group

Receives treatment

Experimental Bias

Use double blind studies to prevent

Facts

Undisputed and can be verified.

Laws of nature

Generalization about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave.

Theory

Statement of explanation, supported by facts, laws of nature, and experimentation.

Organization of Living Systems in order

Atom
Molecules
Organelles
Cell
Tissue
Organ
Organ Systems
Organism

Atom

the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element

Molecules

two or more atoms joined together

Organelles

specialized structures that carry out specific cell functions

Cell

basic unit of life

Tissue

group of similar cells that perform a particular function

Organ

a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body.

Organ Systems

a group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions

Organism

A living thing

Characteristics of life

Organization, Cellular composition, Metabolism and excretion, Responsiveness, Homeostasis, Development and Growth, Reproduction and Evolution.

Metabolism

the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism

excretion

the bodily process of discharging waste matter

Responsiveness

is the organism's ability to sense changes taking place inside or outside the body

Homeostasis

process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment

Development

The process of change that occurs during an organism's life to produce a more complex organism.

Growth

increase in size

Reproduction

production of offspring by an organism; a characteristic of all living things

Evolution

change in a kind of organism over time

Viruses

non-living parasites composed of a genome inside a protein coat

Negative feedback system

Reverses a change in a controlled condition. e.g. regulation of (high) blood pressure.

positive feedback

Feedback that tends to magnify a process or increase its output.

feedback loops

maintain homeostasis-detects and responds to changes in internal environment (positive and negative)

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