Biochem Unit 2 Eb2834

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PDH E1

Pyruvate DH + TPP

PDH E2

Dihydrolipoyl Transacetylase + Lipoic acid (lipoate)

PDH E3

Dihydrolipoyl DH + FAD

Permanent cofactors of PDH

TPP
Lipoate
FAD

Non-permanent cofactors of PDH

CoA-SH
NAD+

Inhibitors of PDH (4)

ATP
Acetyl-CoA
NADH
Fatty Acids

Stimulators of PDH (4)

AMP
CoA
NAD+
Ca2+

Inhibitors of Citrate Synthase (4)

NADH
Succinyl-CoA
Citrate
ATP

Stimulator of citrate synthase (1)

ADP

Inhibitors of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (2)

ATP
NADH

Stimulators of isocitrate dehydrogenase (2)

Ca2+
ADP

Inhibitors of a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (2)

succinyl-CoA
NADH

Stimulators of a-ketoglutarate DH complex (1)

Ca2+

Redox Carriers

Nicotinamide and Flavin e- carriers
Ubiquinone
Heme
Iron-sulfur clusters

3 Fates for Glucose

Storage in glycogen
Oxidation to ribose-5-phosphate
Oxidation to pyruvate

Two in vivo sources of glucose

Mobilization from glycogen
REduciton of non-carb precursors to gluconeogenic substrates

Carbon sources for gluconeogenesis

Lactate
Amino acids (alanine)
Glycerol
Proprionate

3 Tissues active in gluconeogenesis

Liver (principal)
Kidney Cortex
Skeletal Muscle

Reactive Oxygen Species

Singlet oxygen
Superoxide radical anion
Hydrogen peroxide
Lipid peroxyl radical
hydroxyl radical

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