Barron's Human Geography AP Unit 6

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Early urbanization

type of -----ization emerging from the First Agricultural Revolution

Egalitarian society

civilization in which all people are equal; typical of most hunter-gatherer societies.

Stratified society

civilization in which people exist in different classes; the development of farming and early cities began this process.

Formative era

time where the major urban hearths came into exist stance (e.g., for the Fertile Crescent this occurred between 7,000 - 5,000 BCE (Before Common Era - same as BC (Before Christ)).

Urban elite

group of socially, politically, or economically dominant figures in a society.

Theocratic center

focus of religious activity or importance.

Medieval Optimum (Medieval Warm Period)

a time of warm weather around CE 800-1300 (Common Era - same as AD (Anno Domini) during the European Medieval period. The effect may largely have been focused in the Northern Atlantic.

Little Ice Age (16th - 19th c.)

period of global cooling after the Medieval Warm Period (~9th c. to 14th c.); greatly affected the northern empires of Rome and China (e.g., encouraged the migration of people to the cities in England due to shrinking farmlands providing factories with an abundant supply of cheap labor.

Societal Classification

Gideon Sjoberg's theory that says cities changed over time

Folk-preliterate

earliest cities, predating written languages.

Feudal

arose during the Middle Ages which actually stagnated urban growth in Europe; fostered a dependent relationship between wealthy landowners and peasants - provided few alternative economic alternatives.

Preindustrial

found in societies without sophisticated machine technology, where human and animal labor form the basis for economic production (no city moved past this stage until the Industrial Revolution).

Urban-industrial

predominate in the modernized nations of Western Europe, America, Japan (and to a lesser extent where their cultures have globalized) where productivity through machines, and energy sources from fossil fuels and atomic power phenomenally expand economic productivity.

Urban banana (crescent-shaped zone)

urbanized zone that spread from India and the Far East (China & Japan) across the Islamic Empires, and into Europe; followed mostly along the silk and spice trade routes.

Medieval city

European-style city with high density of development, narrow buildings, and an ornate church at the city center, with high walls for defense (walls proved futile when gunpowder made its way into Europe by the 1300s).

Mercantile city

Atlantic maritime trade disrupted old trade routes & centers of power starting in the 1500s (from interior to coastal ports); central square became focus ("downtown"), these cities became nodes of a network of trade; brought huge riches to Europe (e.g. Lisbon, Amsterdam, London, ...).

Manufacturing city

(type of city) grew out of the Industrial Revolution and the "Little Ice Age"; associated w/ mushrooming population, factories, tenement buildings, railroads, ...; poor living & health conditions; cities improved w/ government intervention, city planning, and zoning, ...

Modern city

(_____ architecture) little attention is spent on building aesthetics or ornate designs; improved transportation & road systems has allowed greater complexity, multiple CBDs, and dispersal into the suburbs; the hallmark of American life.

Postmodernism

(________ architecture) architecture & design developed for look & commerce (may connect to historical roots); a reaction to feeling of sterile alienation some had to modern architecture; city spaces become more people-friendly.

Agglomeration

(nucleation) clustering of people or businesses for mutual benefits of close proximity; can share labor pools, technological and financial amenities, and ancillary industries (support large-scale industries).

Urban hierarchy

ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions.

Hamlet

lowest level of settlements (often not urban); offers few if any services.

Village

clustered human settlement larger than a hamlet and generally offering several services.

Town

clustered human settlement larger than a village; may range from a few to thousands of inhabitants (even hundreds of thousands); generally many goods and services are available.

City

clustered conglomeration of people and buildings together serving as a center of politics, culture, and economics; a town may have outskirts, but virtually all ______ have suburbs (hinterlands).

Metropolis

usually contains several urbanized areas and suburbs that act together as a coherent economic whole.

Hinterland

literally "country behind"; refers to the surrounding area served by an urban center (the heartland).

Megalopolis

(e.g. conurbation such as Bosnywash, SanSan, ChiPitts,...) occur predominantly in MDCs; large coalescing supercities that were originally separate but have expanded and joined together.

Megacity

occur predominantly in LDCs; high population growth and migration cause these cities to attract massive amounts of population since WWII; tend to be plagued by chaotic and unplanned sprawling growth, pollution, and widespread poverty.

CBD (central business district)

location of skyscrapers and companies (would always be the center of the 3 urban models, many people commute, few actually live there)

Central city

urban area that is not suburban; generally the older or original city surrounded by the newer suburbs.

Inner city

urban area around the CBD; typically poorer and more run down in the US and other long-developed states; typically more rich upscale in less-developed states.

Ghetto

inner cities that become dilapidated centers of poverty, as affluent whites move out of the suburbs (white flight) and immigrants and poorer people vie for scarce jobs and resources.

Nodes

geographical centers of activity; large cities have numerous _____.

Suburb

residential communities, located outside of city centers; usually homogeneous in terms of population and ethnicity.

Exurb

ring of prosperous communities beyond the suburbs that are commuter towns for an urban area; began to emerge in the 1970s when rampant crime and urban decay in U.S. cities were the primary push factors; more recently since house prices have skyrocketed, middle-class people who want a large yard or farm are pushed beyond suburban counties and into "______".

Urban sprawl

process of expansive suburban development over large areas; the automobile provides the primary source of transportation.

New Urbanism

urban design originating in the US during the 1980s to work against sprawl; characterized by organized urban planning, suburban infill (filling in unused space), and are designed to be walkable.

Central Place Theory (Walter Christaller)

explains how services are distributed and why there are distinct patterns in this distribution; organized by hexagons to eliminate unserved or overlapping market areas.

Central goods and services

provided only at a central place, or city (available to consumers in a surrounding region).

Range of sale (breaking point)

maximum distance people will travel for a good or service (economic reach).

Threshold

the minimum number of customers needed to keep the business running

Complementary region

the market area; an exclusive hinterland w/ a monopoly on a certain good or service.

John Borchert's model

(1967); recognized four epochs in the evolution of the American metropolis based on the impact of transportation & communication

Sail-Wagon Epoch

(part of Borchert's model) (1790-1830) - associated with low technology

Iron Horse Epoch

(part of Borchert's model) (1830-70); steam-powered locomotive & spreading rails

Steel-Rail Epoch

(part of Borchert's model) (1870-1920); full impact of Ind. Rev. (steel), hinterlands expand

Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch

(part of Borchert's model) (1920-70); gas-powered internal combustion engine

High Technology Epoch

(not part of Borchert's model) (1970-today ); expansion of service & information industries

Concentric zone (1920s; Ernest Burgess)

based on his studies of Chicago: 1) CBD, 2) Zone of transition (residential deterioration & light industry), 3) Blue-collar workers, 4) Middle-class, 5) outer suburban ring; the model is dynamic (as the city grows, the inner rings encroach on the outer ones).

Sector

(1939; Homer Hoyt) urban growth creates a pie-shaped urban structure due, in part, to the advancement of transportation like the electric trolley (e.g. low-income areas could extend from the CBD to the outer edge (3)); the same is true w/ high-rent, transportation, and industry.

Multiple nuclei

(1945; Chauncy Harris & Edward Ullman) claimed the CBD was losing its dominant position as the nucleus of the urban area; separate nuclei become specialized and differentiated, not located in relation to any distance attribute (urban regions have their subsidiary, yet competing, "nuclei").

Urban realms

parts of giant conurbations; self-sufficient suburban sectors (focused on their own independent CBD).

Squatter settlement

(shantytown) residential development characterized by extreme poverty; usually exists on land just outside of cities that is neither owner nor rented.

Edge city

characterized by extensive office and retail space, few residential areas, and modern buildings (built since the 1960s); signifies a newer worldwide trend of the movement of the loci of economic activity to the urban fringe (unlike the loci of activity around the CBD - which had dominated the industrial world).

Primate city

a country's largest city; most expressive of the national culture and usually the capital city as well (e.g., Paris, France; Lagos, Nigeria; Mexico City, Mexico; Dhaka, Bangladesh, ...).

Rank-size rule

states without a true primate city may follow this rule (many MDCs lack primate cities b/c technology and wealth has diffused throughout their countries); the population of any given city should be inversely proportional to its rank in the urban hierarchy (e.g., if #1 = 12 million, then #2 = 6 million, #3 = 4 million, #4 = 3 million, ...).

Basic sector

activities and services that generate income for a city (e.g., manufacturing, retail, ...).

Nonbasic sector

work responsible for the functioning of the city itself (e.g., government, street cleaning, ...).

Economic base

ratio of basic to nonbasic workers (nonbasic is always larger).

Multiplier effect

(1:2 (or 1:3) for most large cities) for every worker in the basic sector, there are typically 2-3 workers in the nonbasic sector for most modern cities.

Functional specialization

some cities are characterized by one specific activity (e.g., Orlando - tourism, Las Vegas - gambling, ...); cities tend to lose their functional specialization as they grow. Typically specialize in management, research and development of a specific industry (motor vehicles in Detroit), or are centers of government and education, notably state capitals that also have a major university (Albany, Lansing, Madison, or Raleigh-Durham).

American city

(type of city) suburbanization began largely in the US after WWII (US is the only country in the world in which the majority of the population resides in the suburbs), however, more people have started the process of centralization since the 1990s (moving back into the central cities).

Revitalization

city planners have redesigned their central cities to make them more amenable to people moving in, especially higher income residents.

Commercialization

transforming of an area of a city into spaces of consumption - areas attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity.

Gentrification

trend of mid to high-income Americans moving into city centers and rehabilitating much of the architecture, but also replacing low-income population - changing the social character of certain neighborhoods.

Tear-downs

houses that new owners bought with the intention of tearing them down and building a larger home (sometimes called McMansions due to their super size and similar look); like gentrification in the city, it increases housing values and tax revenues, and average income; however, unlike gentrification, the houses are destroyed (not preserved), and this occurs in the wealthy suburbs (like Greenwich Connecticut, or the intercoastal in South Florida) not the central city.

McMansions

name for house created in where a "tear-downs" once stood

Modern city models (foreign)

most residences tend to decrease in quality and value as the distance from the CBD increases:

Latin-American

owe much of their structure to colonialism, industrialization, and massive population growth; sector development radiates out from the CBD (which often contain a central plaza), where most industrial and financial activity occurs; also contain barrios (ethnic neighborhoods) which can often be associated with poorer sectors of the city.

Barrios

(in Latin America) ethnic neighborhoods that can often be associated with poorer sectors of the city.

Southeast Asian

(type of city in a specific location) consist of sectors and zones radiating from the port zone; influenced by colonialism and are often still focused on exporting goods.

Sub-Saharan African

(type of city in a specific location) consist of sectors and zones, but possess a great deal of centrality around the CBD (may contain multiple CBDs); typically have strong ethnic neighborhoods and squatter settlements on the outskirts.

Canadian city

tend to be more centralized and less suburbanized that US cities; b/c of this their inner cities tends to be much less dilapidated due to fewer wealthy people leaving them.

European city

older ones were mostly developed during the Medieval period; display less sprawl than US cities, in part since gasoline my cost up to 3-4 times more than in the US; also, some cities have greenbelts (undeveloped area neighboring an urban area, often protected from development by planning law) which confine urban sprawl.

Greenbelts

(in European cities) undeveloped area neighboring an urban area, often protected from development by planning law

Eastern European city

typically less affluent than Western European cities due to the communist urban planning by the USSR during the Cold War; most residential spaces were organized into microdistricts (designed to minimize cost by reducing roads and maximizing living space).

Microdistricts

most residential spaces were organized in this way by the USSR to minimize costs by reducing roads and maximizing living space

Islamic city

found in the Muslim regions; owe their structure to their religious beliefs; contain mosques, open-air markets, courtyards surrounded by walls, limiting foot traffic in residential neighborhoods.

Racial steering

the practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race.

Redlining

illegal discriminatory practice in the US where minorities are prevented from obtaining loans to buy homes or property in predominantly white or affluent areas.

Blockbusting

the process of white families selling their homes because of fears that blacks would move in and lower the property value (explains the white flight of the 1950's and the growth of suburbs)

Zoning laws

legal restrictions on land use; residential, commercial, or industrial.

Centralization

the movement of people, capital, services, and govt. into the central city (opposite of suburban sprawl, happened to cities before WWII and is happening now).

Census tract

these are govt. designated areas in cities that each have ~5,000 people, they often times correspond to neighborhoods (data in ---- ----- are used to analyze urban patterns such as gentrification or white flight)

Sprawl

outlying areas more susceptible to landslides, floods, storms, earthquakes, ...

Loss of soil

farmland lost (US = 1 million acres/yr.; China = 3x as much)

Land use

natural landscape becomes cultural (pavement, buildings,...); less rainfall, more pollutants

Pollution

growing volumes of contaminants (in air, water, and soil); Mexico City, Delhi, Bangkok are most smog-ridden; riverfront cities create pollution as well

Waste

many lack of sewer facilities (>3 million w/o in Mexico City); burning garbage heaps

Consumption habits

urban dwellers use more energy, change diets (meat), dress, and recreation habits

World city

(global city) centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce (e.g. NYC, London, Tokyo, Buenos Aires, Sydney, ...)

Entrepot

(French for "warehouse") a trading post (e.g., port) where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties, often at a profit (e.g., Hong Kong, Dubai, Singapore, ...).

Gateway city

because of their geographic location, they act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas (e.g., NYC, San Francisco, ...).

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