World Geo.-Africa Unit-Vocab. (ellebo's)

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nile river

world's longest river. headwaters (start)-lake victoria, mouth/delta (end)-mediterainean sea, cairo, egypt

madagscar island

world's 4th longest island-also a country

great east african rift valley

region of tectonic activity in e.africa caused by the plates diverging (separating)

lowest point in africa

dji boutis lak assal 571 ft below sea level-part of gearvs

highest point in africa

mt. kilimanjaro-14,340 ft kenya/tanzania border. a volcano-part of gearvs

horst

special valley/depression formed by the surrounding land diverging (separating) ex: the many lakes of gearvs

graben

special valley/depression formed by the surrounding land diverging (separating) ex: the many lakes of gearvs

sahara desert

world's largest desert covering 1/3 of africa-as large as contiguous us

loess

geographic term for blowing silt of sand-sahara loess gets blown across the atlantic to the america's

erg

geographic term for sand dune

big daddy

world's largest erg-1,100 ft in the namib desert in namibia

largest city in africa (population)

cairo, egypt. approx 14 million

largest country in africa

nigeria-98th largest in world. approx 155 million

pharoah scorpian I's tomb

hyroglyphics carved into bone fragments discovered and dated to 3300 BC (5300 yrs ago)- oldest human writing ever found

mesopotamia

meso( between) potamia(river), ancient iraq between tigris and eurpgrates rivers in iraq-one of the world's oldest civilizations

cuneiform

ancient writing system of mesopotamia wedge shapes pressed into clay tablets-oldest sample dates back to 3200 BC (5200 yrs ago)

fertile crescent

considered the cradle of world civilization . includes the river of the tigris/euprates (mesopotamia-iraq), jordon (israel) and the nile (egypt)

meaning of the world's oldest writing

reciepts for taxes paid to the pharaoh scorpian I. he may have been the first pharaoh of a unified egypt

maghreb

islamic north africa

arab spring 2011

wave of pro-democracy revolts that led to three north-african dictators being overthrown in 2011 in tunisia he fled in egypt he was arrested) and in libya he was killed

shariah law

strict interpretation of islam practiced by islamic fundamentalists (extremists)

timbucktu, mali

ancient trade center in maghreb founded by tuareg herders. today the word "timbucktu" means any far way place (middle of nowhere)

tuareg

nomadic herders of north america (berbers) in the sahara

zalahari (zahahiri)

new leader of the al quida (osama bin laden's terrorist organization)

col. gadhafi

former dictator of libya and enemy overthrown and killed by his own people during the Arab Spring revolts 2011

panam 103

flight from london to newyork city deceber 1988 it blew up over scotland by a libyan bomb placed on board-worst terrorist attack against usa until 9/11

nato airwar over libya 2011

nato warplanes (including american) bombed gadhafi's forces leading to his overthrow by libyan rebels on the ground

sahel

arabic word for shore-southern shore (edge) of the sahara-geographic boundary between the two main parts of africa-north america and sub-sahara africa

desertification in sahel

combo of droughts and growing population in the sahel-means the sahara is expanding southward

animism

religion in which people believe in the presence of the spirits and forces of nature-common sub saharan africa and japan (shinto)

lost boys of sudan

large group of about ten thousand orphaned southern sudanese boys who fled to kenya (became refugees) to escape the genocide from the north in 1990s-some got permission to come to the usa

south sudan

broke away from maghreb northern sudan in 2011 after five decades of fighting and genocide

operation restore hope 1992

us soldiers were sent to samalia to make sure donated food-aid got to starving somalians ended in 1993 after the battle of mogadishu when us army blackhawk helicopters were shot down

somali pirates

they launch raids from somalia (horn of africa) taking of ships and demanding ransom money

maersk alabama

us ship hijacked by somalia pirates in 2009-rescued by navy seals

berlin conference 1884

european powers settle colonial disputes in africa all african lands were colonized by europeans except ethopia and liberia

rwandan genocide 1994

two rival african tribes, the hutus and the tutsis, engaged in enocide against eachother

ibabazi

the orphanage that roz carr established for orphans of the rwandan genocide, word means "motherly love"

zanzibar

well known tanzanian tropical resort island in the indian ocean

swahili

lingua franca (commonly used language) of eastern africa

jane goodall

british scientist-world's leading export on chimps, she has a research park in w.tazania on lake tanganyika

serengeti plain park

large national park in tanzania famous for its diversity in wildlife

savanna

tropical grasslands, ex: serengeti plain/park

human welfare (standard of living) in africa

lowest in world, primarily because most african countries are in the developing world and are extremely poor

hiv/aids pandemic in subsaharan africa

about 75% of all hiv/aids cases in the world are in subsaharan africa, major health issue there

philanthropist bill gates

he's the richest american and is now giving away his wealth to various causes-ex: donated 100 million dollars to try to find hiv vaccine

pres. gw bush's emergency program for aids relief

first bill funded $15 billion for aids medications for africa-renewed in 2008 for $30 billion more

malaria

disease spread by mosquitos that is common in the tropics but especially bad in subsaharan africa-leading cause of death of young children in africa-baby snatcher of africa

botswana's diamonds

world's leading producer of diamonds-native kalahari bushmen are being evicted fro their lands as the mining operations expand

apartheid

racial segreghation system of south africa-ended in 1990s

afrikaaners/afrikaans

white south afrikana mostly british and dutch-afrikaans is a south africa dialect-blend of english and dutch

homelands

reservations where the native black south africans were forced to live during apartheid era-some are now ind. nations

mandela's 90th bday celebrations 46664 concert in london

2008 concert -46664 was mandela's prison cell number-thats how many tickets were sold to benefit his 46664 charity

kofi aman

leader of the united nations from 1999 to 2007 from ghana-winner of nobel peace prize

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