Delmar Chapter 42 Key Terms Urinalysis

35 terms by ALW67 

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Acid/Base Balance

Condition that occurs when the net rate at which the body produces acids or bases is equal to the net rate at which acids or bases are excreted

Amorphous

(adj.) shapeless, without definite form; of no particular type or character; without organization, unity, or cohesion

Bilirubin

an orange-yellow pigment in the bile that forms as a product of hemoglobin

Bilirubinuria

the presence of bilirubin in the urine

Casts

tubular structures found in urine composed mainly of mucoprotein secreted by certain cells of the kidney

Chain of custody

Special strict protocol for forensic specimens that requires detailed documentation tracking the specimen from the time it is collected until the results are reported.

Carcadian Rhythm

sequence of body changes every 24 hours

Creatinine

waste product of muscle metabolism, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in urine

Critical Values

test results that indicate a potentially life threatening or greatly debilitating situation that must be reported to the provider immediately

Crystals

Found in normal urine sediment having no particular significance; should be noted because they may indicate disease states.

Culture and sensitivity

a laboratory test in which a sample is removed from an infection and placed in a culture medium in order to identify the type(s) of bacteria and then determine its sensitivity to a variety of antibiotics

Cultures

Microorganisms cultivated in a nutrient medium. Taken for testing.

Glucose

the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.

Glucosuria

Presence of glucose in the urine

Hematuria

Presence of blood in the urine

Hyaline

Transparent clear. hyaline casts consists of mucuprotein. they are transparent and difficult to see in the urine.

Ketoacidosis

Accumulation of ketones in the body; occuring primarily as a complication of diabetes mellitus; if left untreated, it cause coma

Ketone

Chemical compound produced during an increased metabolism of fat; also, tesy on a reagent strip.

Ketonuria

Having ketones in the urine

Ketosis

A condition of the body burning fatty acids for energy in the absense of the appropriate glucose/carbohydrates. May be referred to as lipolysis

Leukocyte Esterase

Test on a reagent strip that indicates the presence ofwhite blood cells in the urinary tract.

Midstream Collection

Urine sample collected in the middle of a flow of urine

pH

scale that indicates the relative alkalinity or acidity of a solution; measurement of hydrogen ion concentration

Quality Control (QC)

procedures are designed to ensure accuracy and precision of laboratory tests and to discover and eliminate human error. calibration of machines

Reagent

chemical substances that detects or synthesizes other substances in a chemical reaction

Reagent Test Strip

narrow strip of plastic on which pads containing reagents are attached

Refractometer

an instrument used to measure the refractive index of urine which is an indirect measurement of the specific gravity of urine

Sediment

Insoluble materials that settles to the bottom of a liquid; material examined in the urinalysis microscopic examination

Specific Gravity

the ratio of the weight of a given volume of solution to the weight of the same volume of distilled water at the same temp test often performed during the urinalysis physical exam and can appear the reagent test strip

Supernatant

urine that appears to be above the sediment when centrifuged; poured off before sediment is examined under the microscope

Turbid

Opaque, not clear. used to describe urine that is cloudy.

Urea

Principle end product of protein metabolism

Urinalysis

the physical chemical and microscopic examination of urine and its components

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

The most common of all bacterial infections

Urobilinogen

colorless compound produced in the intestine after the breakdown by bacteria of bilirubin

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