a testable, tentative explanation based on prior knowledge
a body of knowledge that attempts to logically explain natural phenomena. it has been supported by many lines of independently derived evidence; well supported scientific knowledge
Scientific Method (def)
systematic approach to interpreting observations; based on evidence and testable hypothesis
Scientific Method (steps)
make observations, ask questions, consult prior knowledge, formulate a hypothesis, collect and interpret data, consult prior knowledge, draw conclusions, peer review
a test of a hypothesis under controlled conditions
response that may be under the influence of an independent variable
hypothesized influence on a dependent variable
untreated group used as a bias for comparison w/ a treated group in an experiment
truth is provisional (it changes), wrong = good (progress), testing leads to acceptance, the "best" answer
instinctive; coded in genes (taste, moro reflex)
relies on trust/faith (religion, books)
How are hypotheses and theories different?
A theory is broader in scope and encompass multiple hypotheses; a hyp. is tentative, but theories reflect a broader agreement; a theory predicts about future phenomena
How are hypotheses and theories the same?
they are both explanations for a natural phenomenon
What are the goals of science?
to construct better and better explanations
What are limits to scientific understanding?
it may lead to multiple interpretations; researchers may misinterpret observations or results; scientific community might be slow to accept new evidence; cannot answer things that don't have a testable hypothesis; hard to study the past w/out lots of evidence
How is progress made in science?
by proving things wrong