Psychosocial Aspects of Disability Spring 2012 LECTURE # 2 1-19-12

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44 terms

Disability

a physical or mental condition, chronic (6 months or more) and limits the person in someway

Handicap

a physical or mental condition, something that makes progress difficult

Impairment

a physical condition that is chronic

Impediment

an obstacle or barrier

Functional Limitation

A description of how that disability affects the person, performing tasks and interacting with people.

Developmental Disability

something that occurs before the age 21 and is from birth

Significant Disability

imposes one or more impediments

(Legislative)
What does the PL means in PL 100-46

PL means Public Law

Explain: PL 100-46 Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of
Rights Act

brought values into the legislation, the values were independence (ability to function on their own and control), productivity (real work for real money) and integration or inclusion (everybody has a right to live in the community not institutionalized)

Explain: PL 93-112 Rehabilitation Act of 1973

often called the civil rights act for persons with disabilities, can't discriminate just because a person has a disability

Explain: 1990 ADA 1973 and 1964

blends section 504 and civil rights act together, pertains to both private and public sector

Explain: 1998 Amendments to the Rehabilitation Act

so that people could have same opportunities for work and advancement in the primary labor market

What is the Prevalence of Disability (estimated in Percentage)?

Disability Occurs in Approximately 15% to 18% of the US Population 58 mill.

What percentage of people with disabilities do you think want to work?

Answer: 80% want to work and only 34% are actually working—after ADA act the number of people working decreased to 29% after 2004. Because employers resisted having to hire people with a disability. By 2010 it did go back up to 34%: Housing, transportation, education, healthcare and recreation.

In what percentage of the population do developmental disabilities occur (significant)

Developmental Disability (significant) (lifelong) Occurs in Approximately 1.65% of the Population

Demographics of DD/Significant Disability:
1. Disabilities Represented
* Physical ?
* Cognitive Sensory ?
* Sensory ?
* Mental ?

Demographics of DD/Significant Disability
1. Disabilities Represented
* Physical 38%
* Cognitive Sensory 35%
* Sensory 17%
* Mental 10%

Demographics of DD/Significant Disability:
What percentage are Under Age 18

Greater Than 50% are Under Age 18

Demographics of DD/Significant Disability:
Are African-Americans and Native Americans a higher or lower proportion?

Higher Proportion of African-Americans and Native Americans (has more to do with socioeconomic numbers)

Demographics of DD/Significant Disability:
How many live in a group situation (Group Home)?

Approximately 20% of all Person Who Have A DD/Significant Disability live in a Group Situation (Group Home), 9-10% are institutionalized, institutionalized so they can manage them

What are the Issues Affecting Persons with Significant Disabilities

A. Lack of Community Inclusion
B. Financial Need
C. Lack of Services/Supports That Facilitate Independence
D. Lack of Integrated Service System—bounced from place to place to get answers
E. Unavailability of Work
F. Lack of Social Service Supports/Networks
G. Commitment of Service Providers/Care Givers
H. Dependency (The right to fail)

What are the different Stereotypes (SD book Pg. 11) That are barriers to Independence, Productivity, and Inclusion

A. The Medical/Pathological Stereotype—
B. The Economic Worth Stereotype—
C. The Needed Professional Stereotype—
D. The Bureaucratic Stereotype—

Explain: The Medical/Pathological Stereotype

in which persons with severe disabilities are viewed as sick or unmotivated individuals who it is proper to regard as burdens of charity who should passively accept permanent social and economic dependence

Explain: The Economic Worth Stereotype

in which people with disabilities are discounted as economically worthless and excluded from the workforce on the basis of their perceived congenital unproductiveness.

Explain: The Needed Professional Stereotype

in which the continued dependence of people with severe disabilities is assured by career structures of the helping professionals whose very jobs depend on retaining the power to distribute scarce resources to their de-facto wards.

Explain: The Bureaucratic Stereotype

in which disability is characterized as a set of administrative problems to be solved by administrators rather than as a label signaling the restrictions on personal dignity and social freedom

What are the Six Principles That Underlie Community Inclusion

1. All people with significant disabilities/developmental disabilities belong in the community.
2. People with significant /developmental disabilities should be included into typical neighborhoods, work environments, and community settings. Deserve dignity
3. Support should be given to people with significant/developmental disabilities in families and typical homes in the community.
4. We should encourage the development of relationships between people with significant/developmental disabilities and other people.
5. We should give people with significant/developmental disabilities opportunities to learn
6. Consumers and parents should be involved in the design, operation, and the monitoring of services.
Source: Center on Human Policy, Syracuse University

Note: pg 179 in Psychology of Disability explains how these things have come to being and progressed over the years not mandatory

Explain: Enabling legislation

the hoped for consequence is for the states to exceed the minimum requirement. Legislating Morality—"To do the Right Thing"

Explain: Foresight Provision

Legislation that is drafted must include an attempt to look at the future implications if the proposed legislation were to become law.

What are C. Benefits and Services to PwDs

• Medically verifiable impairment that prevents/precludes education/employment (misperceptions)
• Cultural context/construct—person with the medical impairment is innocent v causative regarding etiology:

Expalin innocent etiology

people had nothing to do with getting disability
a. Soldiers--Benefits
b. VR Services for WWI Solders this is how it started
c. VR Services to citizens with disabilities
d. Expansion of VR Services to Persons with Mental and Cognitive Disabilities
e. Expansion of Educational Opportunities to Children with Disabilities
f. Service priority to persons with significant disabilities

Explain Causitive etiology

Causation
a. Mental Disabilities
b. Substance Use/Addiction Disorders

Explain: Institutionalization v. Community Services

• Institutionalization--The solution for Persons with Severe/Significant Disabilities
• Olmstead v L.C. and E.W.—Supreme Court decrees that people with disabilities have the right to live in the most integrated settings lived in institutions all of their lives

Explain: Paradigm Shift from Medical Model to Empowerment of PwD

• Legislation supporting empowerment and basic rights—ADA, IDEA, MiCassa (proposed), Tech Act, TWWIIA, Ticket to Work (SSDI/SSI)

What are the rights of people with disabilities?

1. The Right to a Barrier Free Environment
2. The Right to Participate in Society
3. The Right to Free & Appropriate Education(FAPE)
4. The Right to Equal Opportunity for Jobs
5. The Right to Economic Protection
6. Confidentiality and the Right to Know
7. The Right to a Fair Trial
8. The Right to be a Parent
9. The Right to Redress

Explain: 1. The Right to a Barrier Free Environment

• The 1973 Rehabilitation Act through Sections 501 (AA), 502 (ATBCB), 503 (Grants/Contracts), and 504 (nondiscrimination)

Explain: 2. The Right to Participate in Society

• Section 504, 1973 Rehabilitation Act
• Davis Case (1979)
• Grove City College v Bell (1980)
• Civil Rights Restoration Act (1984)
• Advocacy
o ADAPT—Transportation (1983)
o Gallaudet University (1988) Washington DC
o Fair Housing Act (1988)
o ADA (1990)

Explain: 3.The Right to Free & Appropriate Education(FAPE)

• EHC Act/IDEA (1975 forward with amendments)
• ADA (1990)

Explain: 4. The Right to Equal Opportunity for Jobs

• ADA Title I
• Garrett v University of Alabama
• Advocacy

Explain: 5. The Right to Economic Protection

• Education/Vocational Training
• Employment in the Primary Labor Market

Explain: 6. Confidentiality and the Right to Know

• Medical model v empowerment
• Case file/case notes

Explain: 7. The Right to a Fair Trial

• Interpreter Services
• Accessible Courtroom

Explain: 8. The Right to be a Parent

• Involuntary sterilization
• Procreation
• Adoption (ADA—Title III)

Explain: 9. The Right to Redress

• Grievances (Due Process Hearing)
• Client Assistance Projects (VR

What does it mean to have a disability,
particularly a significant disability or
developmental disability?

*You are alone : (
*You are poor : (
*You are uninvolved, standing on
the periphery of life : (
*You do not work : (
*You are treated with less respect
and dignity than others : (

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