What type of basic tissue type is cartilage?
a. Muscle
b. Nervous
c. Cartilage
d. Epithelium
e. Connective tissue

e. Connective tissue

ow many types of cartilage are there?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
e. 5

C.3
There are three types of cartilage: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage.

What do you call the space where a chondrocyte sits in?
a. Space of Disse
b. Space of Mall
c. Vacuole
d. Lacuna
e. Howship's Lacuna

D. Lacuna
The space of Disse is in the liver. The space of Disse is also called the perisinusoidal space. It is the space between the liver sinusoids and the hepatocytes.

The space of Mall is also in the liver. The space of Mall is located at the portal canal and is the region between the connective tissue and the liver parenchymal cells. It is the site where lymph is formed within the liver.

A vacuole is a small clear space within an individual cell.

A lacuna is a small space or depression. The space that the chondrocyte rests in is a lacuna.

Howship's lacuna is seen in bone. Howship's lacuna is a space seen underneath an osteoclast.

What stain would be best to demonstrate the elastic fibers in elastic cartilage?
a. Wright's stain
b. Hematoxylin and eosin stain
c. Sudan stain
d. Silver impregnation
e. Resorcin fuchsin and orcein

e. Resorcin fuchsin and orcein

A peripheral blood smear would be best visualized with Wright's stain. Hematoxylin and eosin stain is the most commonly used tissue stain for routine histological examination. Lipids are best displayed with a sudan stain. Silver impregnation, such as with a reticular stain, can be used to visualize reticular fibers. Resorcin fuchsin and orcein would best show the elastic fibers in elastic cartilage.

Which type of cartilage is found in the walls of the eustachian tube?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

b. Elastic cartilage

Which type of cartilage forms the skeleton of the fetus?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

a. Hyaline cartilage

Hyaline cartilage forms the skeleton of the fetus. The cartilage forms a template of the bones. Endochondral ossification will occur during the childhood, replacing the hyaline cartilage with bone.

What type of tissue makes up the "Adam's apple"?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Fibrocartilage
c. Elastic cartilage
d. Both a and b
e. Both a and c

a. Hyaline cartilage
The "Adam's apple" is a nickname for part of the larynx formed by the thyroid cartilage. The thyroid cartilage is composed of hyaline cartilage.

Which type of cartilage forms the intervertebral disc?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

C, Fibrocartilage forms the intervertebral disc.

Which type of cartilage forms the hammer, anvil and stirrup?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

e. None of the above

The hammer, anvil and stirrup are the bones in the middle ear. They are made of bone, not cartilage.

Which type of cartilage is characterized by the presence of elastic fibers?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

b. Elastic cartilage

Hyaline cartilage is characterized by a glassy matrix.

Elastic cartilage has elastic fibers in the matrix.

Fibrocartilage has thick bundles of collagen fibers in the matrix.

All three types of cartilage are composed of chondrocytes residing in lacunae and a hydrous extracellular matrix. All three types of cartilage are avascular.

Which type of cartilage is highly vascular?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

e. None of the above
Hyaline cartilage is characterized by a glassy matrix.

Elastic cartilage has elastic fibers in the matrix.

Fibrocartilage has thick bundles of collagen fibers in the matrix.

All three types of cartilage are composed of chondrocytes residing in lacunae and a hydrous extracellular matrix. All three types of cartilage are avascular.

What cell produces the cartilaginous matrix?
a. Chondrocyte
b. Chondroblast
c. Osteocyte
d. Osteoclast
e. Bone lining cell

b. Chondroblast
The mature cell in cartilage is a chondrocyte. It rests in a lacunae surrounded by matrix. A chondroblast is an immature cartilage cell which produces the cartilaginous matrix. An osteocyte is a mature bone cell. An osteoclast is a bone cell which is involved in resorption of bone. A bone lining cell is a resting osteoblast.

Which type of cartilage is found in the larynx?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. Both a and b
e. All of the above

d. Both a and b a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
The larynx is composed of several cartilages. The thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, arytenoid cartilages, corniculate cartilages and cuneiform cartilages are all composed of hyaline cartilage. The epiglottis is elastic cartilage. There is no fibrocartilage in the larynx.

Which of the following is NOT a glycosaminoglycan in cartilage?
a. Chondroitin sulfate
b. Proteoglycans
c. Keratan sulfate
d. Hyaluronic acid
e. All of the above are glycosaminoglycans in cartilage

b. Proteoglycans
Proteoglycans are composed of a protein core and attached glycosaminoglycans.

Chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid are all glycosaminoglycans.

Which type of cartilage is characterized by a glassy matrix?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

a. Hyaline cartilage
Hyaline cartilage is characterized by a glassy matrix.

Elastic cartilage has elastic fibers in the matrix.

Fibrocartilage has thick bundles of collagen fibers in the matrix.

All three types of cartilage are composed of chondrocytes residing in lacunae and a hydrous extracellular matrix. All three types of cartilage are avascular.

Which type of cartilage is characterized by the presence of chondrocytes sitting in lacunae?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

d. All of the above
Hyaline cartilage is characterized by a glassy matrix.

Elastic cartilage has elastic fibers in the matrix.

Fibrocartilage has thick bundles of collagen fibers in the matrix.

All three types of cartilage are composed of chondrocytes residing in lacunae and a hydrous extracellular matrix. All three types of cartilage are avascular.

Which type of cartilage is the most abundant?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. Hyaline cartilage and elastic cartilage equally
e. Elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage equally

a. Hyaline cartilage

Which type of cartilage forms the articular surface on bones?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

a. Hyaline cartilage

Which type of cartilage is found in the external ear?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

b. Elastic cartilage
Note from Sarah Bellham: If you bend your ear forward, it bounces back into its proper position. This is due to the elastic cartilage.

Costal cartilage is composed of what type of cartilage?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

a. Hyaline cartilage
Costal cartilage is the cartilage at the end of the ribs. It is hyaline cartilage.

Which type of cartilage forms the symphysis pubis?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

c. Fibrocartilage
Fibrocartilage forms the symphysis pubis.

What structure is called white cartilage?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. Compact bone
e. Spongy bone

c. Fibrocartilage
Elastic cartilage is sometimes referred to as yellow cartilage. Fibrocartilage is sometimes referred to as white cartilage.

What is the connective tissue covering which surrounds cartilage?
a. Perimysium
b. Periosteum
c. Perichondrium
d. Perineurium
e. Endosteum

c. Perichondrium
The perimysium is the connective tissue sheath around fascicles of muscle.

The periosteum is the connective tissue covering of a bone.

The perichondrium is the connective tissue which surrounds cartilage.

The perineurium is the covering of nerve fascicles.

The endosteum is the lining of the inner bone (the side which abuts the medullary cavity).

Note from Sarah Bellham: The prefix "peri" means around, such as in the word "perimeter". The prefix "endo" means within or inner, such as in "endosteum", "endocrine", "endoscope".

Where does cartilage come from?
a. Ectoderm
b. Endoderm
c. Mesenchyme
d. Connective tissue
e. None of the above

Cartilage arises from mesenchyme.

What is the mature cell in cartilage called?
a. Chondrocyte
b. Chondroblast
c. Osteocyte
d. Osteoclast
e. Bone lining cell

a. Chondrocyte
The mature cell in cartilage is a chondrocyte. It rests in a lacunae surrounded by matrix. A chondroblast is an immature cartilage cell which produces the cartilaginous matrix. An osteocyte is a mature bone cell. An osteoclast is a bone cell which is involved in resorption of bone. A bone lining cell is a resting osteoblast.

Regarding the blood supply to cartilage:
a. Cartilage has minimal circulation
b. Cartilage has a duel circulation
c. Cartilage is highly vascular
d. Cartilage is avascular
e. There is nothing unique about the blood supply to cartilage

d. Cartilage is avascular
Cartilage is avascular. Nutrients reach cartilage by diffusion from the adjacent tissues.

Which type of cartilage is characterized by the presence of thick bundles of collagen fibers?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

c. Fibrocartilage
Hyaline cartilage is characterized by a glassy matrix.

Elastic cartilage has elastic fibers in the matrix.

Fibrocartilage has thick bundles of collagen fibers in the matrix.

All three types of cartilage are composed of chondrocytes residing in lacunae and a hydrous extracellular matrix. All three types of cartilage are avascular.

What percent of the matrix of cartilage is water?
a. 0
b. 10-40
c. 40-60
d. 60-80
e. 80-100

The matrix of cartilage is 60-80% water.

Which type of cartilage forms the epiphyseal growth plate?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

a. Hyaline cartilage

What type of tissue makes up the rings of the trachea?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Fibrocartilage
c. Elastic cartilage
d. Both a and b
e. Both a and c

a. Hyaline cartilage

What type of tissue makes up the epiglottis?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Fibrocartilage
c. Elastic cartilage
d. Both a and b
e. Both a and c

c. Elastic cartilage
The epiglottis is part of the larynx. It is composed of elastic cartilage.

Which type of cartilage is present in the temporomandibular joint?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

c. Fibrocartilage
Fibrocartilage is present in the temporomandibular joint.

What structure is called yellow cartilage?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. Compact bone
e. Spongy bone

b. Elastic cartilage
Elastic cartilage is sometimes referred to as yellow cartilage. Fibrocartilage is sometimes referred to as white cartilage.

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