Under the armchair navigator, _______, Portugal took the lead in developing and testing innovative sailing technologies in the 1400s.
In the 1400s, the majority of Europeans made up the _____ of the social hierarchy
In the 1400s, the daily life of the average European centered around the ______ family
The costly nature and ultimate failure of the campaigns of the ______ led to an increase in the power of European monarchs at the expense of the nobility and the papacy.
In the early 1500s, the ______ divided Christianity in Western Europe into Catholicism and Protestantism.
The "reconquista" of the _______ was achieved when Queen Isabella of Castile and King Ferdinand of Aragon united their kingdoms.
The main goals of Christopher Columbus's first exploration of the Americas were to find gold, claim lands for ______, and spread Christianity.
The ______ were the first Native Americans with whom Columbus came in contact.
The European system of colonization was established during the ________
The Treaty of Tordesillas was an agreement established by the _____ in an effort to settle disagreements about expansion.
In the 1500s, ____ was the main contribution of the Americas to the Columbian Exchange.
triangular lateen sails
These sails found on caravels allowed the ship to travel against the wind.
Allowed the caravel to travel in shallow water.
Allowed the caravel to make tighter turns.
The English leader responsible for the survival of the first Jamestown settlers.
The first permanent English settlement in North America.
Native American people who both helped and later hurt the Jamestown settlers.
Term for people who worked a set number of years in return for passage to North America.
Term for an English colony under direct control of the King.
Leader of Virginia's frontier settlers who led a rebellion against Governor Berkeley in Jamestown in 1676.
Under this system, anyone who paid for their own or another's passage to Virginia received 50 acres of land.
These allowed several investors to pool their money in support of a colony in the New World that would hopefully yield a profit.
1739 slave rebellion.
Voyage that brought Africans to the colonies.
Term for a crop grown for profit.
Name of the transatlantic trade network.
A system of forced labor.
The European movement of science and reason.
American who embodied the Enlightenment.
Puritan leader of the Great Awakening
This revived religion in the colonies.
A French colony in North America.
He was a hero and officer in the French and Indian War,
French and Indian War
This was the fourth war between Britain and France for control of North America.
Led a British army against France in 1757
Smallpox helped to defeat this Native American man's rebellion
Proclamation of 1763
This British Act banned all settlement west of the Appalachian mountains.
A British financial expert hired by King George III that proposed and prompted British parliament to enact the Sugar Act.
British tax act on foreign-made molasses.
British tax on colonial documents; later repealed by British due to colonist's organized resistance.
British attack on a mob in Massachusetts in 1770 that increased tensions with the colonists.
committee of correspondence
Groups set up by American colonists to exchange information about British threats to their liberty.
Olive Branch Petition
An offer of peace extended to Britain in 1775 by the Second Continental Congress
Thomas Paine's pamphlet which inflamed the colonists' desire for independence from Britain.
Virginia lawyer and author of the Declaration of Independence
Key American victory in 1777 that helped sway France to support the Revolution
The Pennsylvania camp where George Washington's troops struggled to survive the winter of 1777-1778
Marquis de Lafayette
The French aristocrat and military leader who offered key assistance to the Patriots
The battle at which the British surrendered to the Americans in 1781.
Form of government in which citizens rule through elected representatives.
Articles of Confederation
The set of laws that created two levels of government; later replaced by the Constitution.
Land Ordinance of 1785
The plan for surveying public land west of the Appalachians and north of the Ohio River.
The mob action by debt-ridden farmers in 1787; it highlighted the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
Author of the Virginia Plan, "Father of the Constitution," and a Federalist.
checks and balances
the system that prevents one branch of government from dominating the others.
The group of electors chosen by each state to cast ballots for presidential candidates.
The supporters of the Constitution; those who favored a balance of federal and state powers.
Those who opposed the Constitution and a strong federal government.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution; it listed personal liberties and government limits.
Federalist Secretary of Treasury
The president's chief advisers
Alien and Sedition Acts
These acts raised citizenship requirements
Federalist chief justice
1803 purchase from Napolean
Half of the explorer team of the West.
Ban on trade with other countries
Native American that organized a band to fight against white settlers
He won the Battle of New Orleans