Chapter's 22-23

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Solution

Is a mixture that appears the same throughout and is mixed at the molecular level.

Solute

The substance being dissolved.

Solvent

The substance doing the dissolving.

Gaseous or Solid

Solution can be liquids, blank and blank

Alloys

A solid solution.

Polar

How dissolving happens: Water molecules are blank. They have a positive area and a negative area.

Sugar and
Positive

Water molecules cluster around blank molecules, with their negative ends attracted to the blank ends of the solution.

Spread out

Water molecules blank the solid particles into solution.

Water and Homogeneous

The moving blank molecules and the solid molecules spread out and mix evenly to form a blank.

Spread

To mix solids to make an alloy solution, you must blank the solids.

Stirring and Crystal size and Increasing Temperature

The rate of dissolving depends on: blank, blank, and blank.

Stirring

Blank speeds up dissolving by bringing more fresh solvent into contact with more solute.

Rate and Size

Dissolving occurs at the blank of a solid and thus crystal blank affects how fast the solid dissolves.

Dissolving

Breaking a solid into pieces or powder increases its blank which speeds up dissolving.

Increasing

Blank the temperature of a solvent speeds up the movement of its particles.

Increase and Decrease

To make a gas dissolve more quickly in a liquid, blank the liquid solvent and decreases the pressure on the gas.

Sugar molecules

The amount of a substance that can dissolve in a solvent.

Substances and Precise

Solubility depends on the nature of the blank. Solubility of 2 substances can be compared by blank the amounts that will dissolve at a given temperature in 100 ml of water.

Saturated and Unsaturated

A blank solution has a large amount of solute in the solvent and a blank solution has small amount of solute in the solvent.

Solubility

Concentrations can be expressed as % by blank of the solute.

Saturated

Types of solutions: a blank solution contains all the solute it can hold at a given temperature.

Increases and Solubility curves

As the temperature of a liquid solvent increases, the amount of solid solute that can dissolve in it blank. Blank is a line o a graph used to figure how much solute can dissolve at any temperature on the graph.

Unsaturated

Blank solution is one in which you are able to dissolve more solute at a given temperature.

Supersaturated and supersaturated

A blank solution contains more solute that a saturated on at the same temperature. A blank solution is made by raising the temperature of a saturated solution, adding more solute and lowering temperature back without disturbing the solution.

Energy and Heat

This solution will crystallize if disturbed because it is blank, as it crystallizes, it gives off energy and produces blank.

Ions

Particles in a solution that have a charge.

Electrolytes

Compounds that form charged particles and conduct electricity in water.

Non-electrolytes

Substances that do not ionize in water and cannot conduct electricity.

Ionization

The process by which molecules break apart in water, causing atoms to become ions by taking on a charge.

Dissociation

An ionic solid separates into its positive and negative ions in a process.

Polar, Non-Polar, Electrolytes, and Non-Electrolytes

All solute particles.

Lowers

Adding a solute to a solvent blanks the freezing point because the added solute particles interfere withe the information of the orderly freezing pattern.

Raises

Adding a solute blanks the boiling point because fewer solvent molecules can reach the surface and evaporate.

Anti-freeze raises the boiling point, and also lowers the freezing point.

How does antifreeze work.

Non- Polar

Blank materials have no positive or negative area. they are not attracted to the polar water molecules, so they do not dissolve easily in water.

Hydrocarbons

Example: Oils and other petroleum products contain carbon and hydrogen and are called blank. These atoms share electrons in an equal manner, so there is no positive or negative charge.

Non- polar

Non-polar solvents such as gas or toluene or paint thinner dissolve blank solutes.

Closed area

Many non-polar solvents are dangerous to touch or inhale and are thus blank.

Flammable

Many also burn easily and are classified as blank.

Non- polar, Polar, Ionic, and Polar

Soap molecules have a blank and a blank end. Thus the blank end dissolves into oil and the blank end dissolves into water, thus breaking up oil.

Polar compounds

Some vitamins are soluble in water (B and C) and thus are blank. These must be replace daily.

Vitamins

Some are fat soluble and are stored in the fat cells of the body because they are blank.

Oil Soluble Vitamins

Which can vitamins can do potential harm if you get too much in your system? (water or oil soluble vitamins)

Oil can get into the sea creatures body, but when the oil is fully in the sea creatures body they will get sick and die instantly. Also it is hard to travel threw the ocean with oil spreading around the entire sea and slow down the flow of the waves and making the boats motor slow down to a complete stop or into slow motion movement.

Why are oil spills in ocean such a problem.

Acid

Contains at least one Hydrogen atom that can be removed.

Hydronium

When an acid is dissolved in water, it forms ions known as blank lions.

Sour and Red

Acids taste blank and turn litmus paper blank.

Curosive

Acids can also do damage to your skin or to metals. Thus acids are called blank.

Citric

Foods contain acids. Citrus fruits contain blank acid.

Lactic

Yogurt and buttermilk have blank acid.

Acetic

Vinegar, used in pickles and dressings, contain blank acid.

Sulfuric and fertilizers

Blank acid is used in car batteries and manufacturing of blank used by farmers.

Phospheric

Acid is used to manufacture detergents, fertilizers and soft drinks.

Nitric

Blank acid is used to manufacture fertilizers and explosives.

Hydrochloric

Blank acid is found in the stomach and used to clean steel.

Base and Hydroxide and water

Blank is a substance that forms (OH-) ion in a water solution. these ions are called blank ions. These ions combine with Hydronium (h+) ions to form HOH commonly known as blank.

Solids

Many bases are crystalline blank (state) in pure undissolved state.

Bitter and Slippery

Bases are blank in taste and feel blank in solution.

Curosive

Soaps contain a base thus making it feel slippery.

Bases and Indicator and Blue

Blank reacts to litmus paper which is called an blank. And turns it blank in color.

Indicator

Purple cabbage juice is also an blank.

Cleaning

Bases are used in antacids, medications, deodorants, and blank products.

Ionize

Acids describe compounds that can blank in water to form hydronium ions.

Strong

Bases describe compounds that can form blank ions in solution.

Conduct

Since acids and bases dissociate in water, they are blank of electricity.

Dissociates

The strength of an acid or base depends on how completely it blanks in water. (forms ions)

Strong

A blank acid or base completely dissociates in water.

Weak and Dissociates

A blank acid or base only partly ionizes or blanks in water.

More

Strong acids or bases conduct blank electricity than weak ones.

Single

Equations for strong acids and bases use a blank arrow to indicate that ions are formed.

Double

Equations for weak acids and bases us blank arrows pointing in opposite directions, indicating an incomplete reaction.

Dilute

If one used a small amount of a strong acid with a lot of water, they have a blank solution of a strong acid.

Concentrate

If Susie uses a lot pf a strong acid and a small amount of water, then she has a blank solution of a strong acid.

Water

Thus dilute and concentrated are terms that describe the amount of and acid or base dissolved in blank.

PH

Blank is a measure of the concentration of H+ ions in a solution or how acidic or basic it is.

Acidic

A PH lower that 7 means something is blank.

7= neutral

If the H= and OH-concentration is the same then the PH is blank = blank.

Basic

A PH greater than 7 means the substances is blank.

Universal

The PH of a material can be determined using a blank indicator paper or PH meter.

Buffers

Blood contains blank which keeps the PH in the blood balanced at about 7.4.

Salt

When an acid (HCl) combines with a base (NaOH), HOH, (water) and a blank (NaCl) are formed.

Salts and Acid

Blank forms when the negative ions from an acid combine with the positive ions from a base. Salts also form when an blank reacts with a meta.

Batteries

Salt is essential for most animals. Salts are used in the manufacture of paint, rubber, glass, soap, detergents, and dry cell blanks.

Titration

Is used to determine the concentration of an acidic or basic solution.

Standard

A solution of known concentration is the blank solution.

End

An acid/base indicator is added to the unknown solution. A color change occurs at the blank point.

Soaps and Oil

Blank are organic salts with polar and nonpolar ends. The nonpolar, hydrocarbon end interacts with blank and dirt. The polar en interacts with water, thus dissolving acting as a bridge to dissolve the oil or dirt.

Detergents

Blank are soaps that ate formed from more soluble salts and are less affected by hard water.

Esters and Hydroxide group

Blank can be made from alcohols, acids, and have a blank group

Perfumes

Esters are used in fruit flavorings and blank.

Hydroxide

Polyesters are blank fibers used to make fabrics.

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