Sherwood Bio Midterm

37 terms by samj82 

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transformation

process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria

bacteriophage

a virus that infects bacteria

nucleotide

monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

base pairing

principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine

chromatin

granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins

histone

protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin

replication

copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA

DNA polymerase

enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule

gene

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait

messenger RNA

RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell

ribosomal RNA

type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes

transfer RNA

type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis

transcription

process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA

RNA polymerase

enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription

promoter

region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA

intron

sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein

exon

expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein

codon

three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid

translation

decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain

anticodon

group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon

chromatid

one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome

centromere

area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached

centriole

one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope

true-breeding

term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate

segregation

separation of alleles during gamete formation

independent assortment

independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes

polygenic trait

trait controlled by two or more genes

tetrad

structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis

crossing-over

process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis

eukaryote

organism whose cells contain nuclei

prokaryote

unicellular organism lacking a nucleus

hypertonic

when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes

hypotonic

when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes

endocytosis

process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane

phagocytosis

process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell

pinocytosis

process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment

exocytosis

process by which a cell releases large amounts of material

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