Agriscience chs. 32-33

58 terms by lindadayj 

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Gourmet

sensitive and discriminating taste in food preferences.

food industry

involved in the production, processing, storage, preparation, and distribution of food for consumption by living things.

retailer

the person or store that sells directly to the consumer.

wholesaler

a person who sells to the retailer, having purchased fresh or processed food in lare quantities.

distributor

stores the food until a request is received to transport the food to a regional market.

processor

anyone involved in cleaning, separating, handling, and preparing a food product before it is ready to be sold to the distributor.

grader

the person who inspects the food for freshness, size, and quality, and determines under what criteria it will be sold and consumed.

packer

the person or firm responsible for putting the food into containers, such as boxes crates, bags, or bins, for shipment to the processing plant.

trucker

the person responsible for transporting the product anywhere along the way from far to consumer.

harvester

the person who removes the edible portions from the plants in the field.

producer

grows the crop and determines its readiness for harvest.

Grades

are based on quality standards

Climatic conditions

refer to average temperature, number of days with a certain temperature range, length of growing season, and amount of precipitation for a given geographic area.

Microorganisms

spoilage is usually caused by microorganisms. Microorganisms that contribute to food spoilage are bacteria, fungi, and nematodes.

Migratory labor

refers to workers who move from place to place where harvesting is occurring throughout the year.

Processing

the steps involved in turning the raw agricultural product into an attractive and consumable food are collectively known as processing.

bran

the skin or covering of a wheat kernel

endosperm

is inside the bran which will become flour

germ

a new wheat plant inside the kernel.

food

a material containing or consisting of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and supplementary substances, such as minerals, used in the body of an organism to sustain growth, repair, and vital processes and to furnish energy.

Fermentation

a chemical change that involves foaming as gas is released.

Controlled atmosphere

is the process whereby oxygen and carbon dioxide are adjusted to preserve or enhance particular foods.

blanching

scalding of food for a brief time before freezing it.

canning

involves putting food in airtight containers and sterilizing the food to kill all living microorganisms that could cause spoilage.

Freeze-drying

the newest method of dehydration.

Oxidative deterioration

loss of quality because of a reaction with oxygen

dehydrofrozen product

is processed by precooking, evaporating water, and freezing.

retortable pouches

are flexible packages consisting of two layers of film with a layer of foil between them.

Irradiation

is a relatively new procedure using gamma rays to kill insects, bacteria, fungi, and other organisms in food products.

dry-heat cooking

involves surrounding the food with dry air in the oven or under the broiler

moist-heat cooking

involves surrounding the food with hot liquid or by steaming, braising, boiling, or stewing the food.

conventional ovens

are used to cook small amounts of foods by dry heat

microwave oven

uses electromagnetic waves to heat and cook food.

convection ovens

heat food with the forced movement of hot air.

dehydrators

remove moisture for food

smokers

preserve food by keeping smoke in contact with the food for prolonged periods.

cream

a component of milk that contains up to 40% butterfat

cheese

is made by exposing milk to certain bacterial fermentations or by treating it with enzymes.

cottage cheese

is made from skimmed milk.

condensed milk and evaporated milk

are both produced by removing large portions of water from the whole milk through a machine called a vacuum pan. Condensed milk is further treated by adding sugar.

shackles

are mechanical devices that confine the legs and prevent movement.

hoist

means to raise into position

viscera

refers to organs located in the body cavity of the animal

carcass

refers to the body meat of the animal the part that is left after the offal has been removed.

offal

consists of the non-meat material that is converted to by-products.

split carcass

sides of the animal

shroud

a large cloth used to wrap a hot carcass in

age or ripen

means to leave undisturbed for a period so that minor biological changes can take place while the beef cools.

block beef

exposed halves, quarters, or wholesale cuts to be cut into retail cuts in supermarkets.

disassembly process

means that the carcass is divided into smaller cuts, vacuum sealed, boxed, moved into storage, and shipped to retailers.

evisceration

the opening of the carcass and removal of the viscera

singe

means to burn lightly to remove hair

leaf fat

consists of layers of fat inside the body cavity

dressing percentage

is a term used to indicate the percentage or yield of hot carcass weight to the weight of the animal on foot.

sweet breads

thymus and pancreatic glands

tripe

pickled rumen, or stomach of cattle and sheep

tankage

is the dried animal residue used as fertilizer and feed for animals other than cattle.

collagen

is the chief constituent of the connective tissues.

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