Indications of Inflammation
dolor, rubor, calor, tumor and sometimes functio laesa
Loss of function
Purpose of inflammation
Delivery of leukocytes and plasma proteins to mediate tissue invasion.
Localized, rapid, characterized by exudates
Fluid and components that filter from the circulatory system in response to inflammation.
Longer duration (days to years) of inflammation.
Systemic inflammatory response (SIR)
Response time is hours to days, characterized by fever, neutropenia, anorexia, fatigue.
Acute inflammatory reactions may be initiated by these.
Infections, trauma, physical and chemical agents, foreign bodies, tissue necrosis, immune reactions
Components of acute inflammation
2. Vascular permeability
3. Leukocyte emigration.
Result of vasodilation of microvascular beds.
Increased blood flow: calor and rubor.
Result of vascular permeability.
Exudate: increased osmotic pressure and exacerbation of swelling.
Result of WBC emigration.
Increased concentration and activation in tissue.
Endothelial cell contraction increases gaps between cells lining venules for up to this many minutes.
Retraction of gaps between cells occurs after this many hours.
Vasodilation is induced by the action of several mediators, notably these.
Histamine and andnitric oxide
The loss of fluid results in this in small vessels and blood.
Concentrated RBCs and increased viscosity of the blood
Components of extracellular matrix and connective tissue.
Mast cell, fibroblast, elastin, macrophage, collage, and proteoglycan filaments.
Circulating White Blood Cells.
Basophil, eosinophil, platelets, neutrophil, and monocyte
Function of RBC
Gas transport to and from tissues and lungs; buffer blood pH.
Function of lymphocytes.
Humoral and cell mediated immunity
Function of neutrophils.
Phagocytosis, particularly during early phase inflammation.
Function of eosinophils.
Phagocytosis; antibody mediated defense against parasites; participate in mucosal immune response.
Function of basophils.
Transport and release of heparin and histamine.
Function of Monocytes and Macrophages.
Phagocytosis; process and present antigens.
Function of platelets.
Hemostasis following vascular injury; provides plug, cofactors, maintains vascular endothelium
Endothelial effects of macrophage activation.
Increased leukocyte adherence, pro-coagulant activity, and decreased anticoagulation activity.
1. Margination, rolling and adhesion to endothelium.
3. Chemotaxis towards stimulus.
Another word for transendothelial migration.
Where chemical mediators are derived from.
The liver and immune cells.
Histamine, ROSs, IL-1, Prostoglandins, Leukotrines
Platelets release these.
Signaling molecules (mediators).
Destruction of microbes generates these.
Oxygen and chloride radicals.
Once the cause of inflammation is eliminated this occurs.
Anti-inflammitory mechanisms are activated.
Scarring that occurs due to excessive fibrin deposition in tissues that are unable to regenerate.
Laboratory indicator of inflammation.
C-reactive protein (CRP)
Acute phase proteins that increase with inflammatory disorders.
Iron is sequestered in this form due to chronic infection.
Implications of nutrition in inflammation
1. Maintain body weight as normal
2. Balance omega 3's and 6's
3. Increase antioxidants
Implications for exercise and inflammation.
1. Results in leukocytosis
2. Circulating cytokines