AP Biology Chapter6
|Light Microscope (LM) [6.1]||An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible light to magnify images of specimens.|
|Magnification [6.1]||The ratio of an object's image size to its real size.|
|Resolution [6.1]|| A measure of the clarity of the image.|
It is the minimum distance two points can be separated and still be distinguished.
|Organelles [6.1]|| Any of several membrane-enclosed structures with specialized functions.|
Suspended in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells.
|Electron Microscope [6.1]||A microscope that is similar in purpose to a light microscope but achieves much greater resolving power by using a parallel beam of electrons to illuminate the object instead of a beam of light.|
|Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) [6.1]||A microscope that produces an enlarged, three-dimensional image of an object by using a beam of electrons rather than light.|
|Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) [6.1]||An electron microscope used to study the internal structure of thin sections of cells.|
|Cell Fractionation [6.1]||Takes cells apart and separates the major organelles and other subcellular structures from one another.|
|Cytosol [6.2]|| Semifluid, jellylike substance.|
Where organelles and other components are found.
|Eukaryotic Cell [6.2]||Most of the DNA is in the nucleus, which is bounded by a double membrane.|
|Prokaryotic Cell [6.2]|| No nucleus|
The DNA is concentrated in a region that is not membrane-enclosed, called the nucleoid.
|Nucleoid [6.2]||A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.|
|Cytoplasm [6.2]|| The interior of a prokaryotic cell.|
The region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane of a eukaryotic cell.
|Plasma Membrane [6.2]||Functions as a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.|
|Surface area to Volume||As a cell increases in size, the volume > surface area.|
|What do Animal Cells have that Plant Cells do not?|| 1. Lysosomes|
2. Centrosomes, with centrioles
|What do Plant Cells have that Animal Cells do not?|| 1. Chloroplasts|
2. Central Vacuole
3. Cell Wall
|Nucleus [6.3]||The chromosome containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell.|
|Nuclear Envelope [6.3]||The double membrane in a eukaryotic cell that encloses the nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm.|
|Nuclear Lamina [6.3]|| A netlike array of protein filaments lining the inner surface of the nuclear envelope.|
Helps maintain the shape of the nucleus.
|Nucleolus [6.3]|| A specialized structure in the nucleus.|
Consisting of chromatin regions containing ribosomal RNA genes along with ribosomal proteins
|Ribosomes [6.3]|| Complexes made of ribosomal RNA and protein.|
Cellular components that carry out protein synthesis.
|Free Ribosomes [6.3]|| Suspended in the cytosol|
Produces enzymes that catalyze the 1st steps of sugar breakdown.
|Bound Ribosomes [6.3]|| Attached to the outside of the ER or nuclear envelope.|
Produces proteins for the membranes, lysosome usage, and exportation from the cell (secretion).
|Endomembrane System [6.4]|| The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.|
Includes: Smooth and Rough ER, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, and Vacuoles
|Vesicles [6.4]||A sac made of membrane in the cytoplasm.|
|Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) [6.4]|| An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells.|
Makes up more than half the total membrane system in many cells.
|Smooth ER [6.4]|| Portion of the ER that is free from ribosomes.|
Functions in the synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates, and the detoxification of drugs and poisons.
|Rough ER [6.4]||Portion of the ER studded with ribosomes.|
|Glycoproteins [6.4]||Secretory Proteins that have carbohydrates covalently bonded to them.|
|Transport Vesicles [6.4]||Vesicles in transit from one part of the cell to another.|
|Golgi Apparatus [6.4]|| A center of manufacturing, warehousing, sorting, and shipping.|
Products of the ER, such as proteins, are modified and stored and then sent to other destinations.
|Cis Face [6.4]||"Receiving" side of the Golgi Apparatus. Transport vesicles move material form the ER to the Golgi Apparatus.|
|Trans Face [6.4]||"Shipping" side of the Golgi Apparatus. Gives rise to vesicles, which pinch off and travel to other sites.|
|Cisternal Maturation Model [6.4]||The cisternae of the Golgi actually progress from the cis to the trans face of the Golgi.|
|Lysosome [6.4]|| A membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an animal cell uses to digest macromolecules.|
Is a digestive organelle, works best in an acidic environment.
|Phagocytosis [6.4]||Process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell.|
|Autophagy [6.4]||When lysosomes use their enzymes to recycle the cell's own organic material.|
|Tay-Sachs Disease|| A disease where a lipid-digesting enzyme is missing/inactive.|
Causes lysosomes to fill up with indigestible substances.
|Food Vacuoles [6.4]||Formed by phacogytosis; pinches off of the plasma membrane and encloses a food particle.|
|Contractile Vacuoles [6.4]||Cavity in the cytoplasm of some protists that collects water and discharges it from the cell, thus maintaining a suitable concentration of ions.|
|Central Vacuole [6.4]|| Prominent organelle in older plant cells, largest compartment in a plant cell.|
Functions include storage, breakdown of waste products, and hydrolysis of macromolecules.
|Mitochondria||Sites of cellular respiration, the metabolic process that generates ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels with the help of oxygen.|
|Chloroplasts|| Found in plants and algae|
Sites of photosynthesis, they convert solar energy to chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive the synthesis of sugars from CO2 and H2O.
|Peroxisome [6.5]||An oxidative organelle that is not part of the endomembrane system. It imports its proteins primarily from the cytosol.|
|Sight of Cellular Respiration||Mitochondrion|
|Cristae [6.5]||Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.|
|Mitochondrial Matrix [6.5]|| Enclosed by the inner membrane|
Contains many different enzymes as well as the mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
|Sight of Photosynthesis||Chloroplast|
|Plastids [6.5]||Group of plant organelles that are used for storage of starches, lipids, or pigments.|
|Thylakoids [6.5]||A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.|
|Granum [6.5]||A stack of thylakoids.|
|Stroma [6.5]||The fluid outside the thylakoids, which contains the chloroplast DNA and ribosomes as well as many enzymes.|
|Glyoxysomes||Specialized peroxisomes that are found in the fat-storage tissues of plant seeds.|
|Cytoskeleton [6.6]|| A network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm.|
Plays a major role in organizing the structures and activities of the cell.
Composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments
|Motor Protein [6.6]||A protein that interacts with cytoskeletal elements and other cell components, producing movement of the whole cell or parts of the cell.|
|Microtubules [6.6]|| Hollow tubes|
Functions in the maintenance of cell shape, cell motility, chromosome movements in cell division, and organelle movements.
Thickest of the three types
|Centrosome [6.6]||Microtubules grow out from here, a region that is often located near the nucleus and is considered a "microtubule-organizing center."|
|Centrioles|| Within the centrosome...|
Compose of nine sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
|Flagella [6.6]||Long, thin, whip-like structures, with a core of microtubules, that enable some cells to move.|
|Cilia [6.6]||The hairlike projections on the outside of cells that move in a wavelike manner.|
|Basal Body [6.6]||A eukaryotic cell organelle consisting of a 9 + 0 arrangement of microtubule triplets; may organize the microtubule assembly of a cilium or flagellum; structurally identical to a centriole.|
|Dyneins [6.6]||Large motor proteins, composed of several polypeptides.|
|Microfilaments [6.6]|| Two intertwined strands of actin|
Functions in maintenance of cell shape, changes in cell shape, muscle contraction, cell motility, and cell division.
|Actin [6.6]||A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments (actin filaments) in muscle and other kinds of cells.|
|Cortex [6.6]||The tissue forming the outer layer of an organ or structure in plant or animal.|
|Myosin [6.6]||A protein present in muscle fibers that aids in contraction and makes up the majority of muscle fiber.|
|Pseudopodia [6.6]||A cellular extension of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding.|
|Cytoplasmic Streaming [6.6]||A circular flow of cytoplasm within cells. This movement speeds the distribution of materials within the cell.|
|Intermediate Filaments [6.6]|| Fibrous proteins supercoiled into thicker cables|
Functions in maintenance of cell shape, anchorage of nucleus and certain organelles, and formation of nuclear lamina.
|Cell Wall [6.7]|| An extracellular structure of plant cells that distinguishes them from animal cells.|
The wall protects the plant cell, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
|Primary Cell Wall [6.7]||A relatively thin and flexible wall secreted by a young plant cell.|
|Middle Lamella [6.7]|| Between primary walls of adjacent cells|
A thin layer rich in sticky polysaccharides called pectins.
|Secondary Cell Wall [6.7]|| Between the plasma membrane and the primary wall.|
Often deposited in several laminated layers, has a strong and durable matrix that affords the cell protection and support.
|Extracellular Matrix (ECM) [6.7]||The substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded, consisting of protein and polysaccharides.|
|Collagen [6.7]||Forms strong fibers outside the cells.|
|Proteoglycans [6.7]||A glycoprotein consisting of a small core protein with many carbohydrate chains attached, found in the extracellular matrix of animal cells.|
|Fibronectin [6.7]||A glycoprotein that helps cells attach to the extracellular matrix.|
|Integrins [6.7]||A receptor protein built into the plasma membrane that interconnects the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.|
|Plasmodesmata [6.7]||Open channels in the cell wall of a plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell.|
|Tight Junction [6.7]||A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that prevents the leakage of material between cells.|
|Desmosomes [6.7]|| Function like rivets, fastening cells together into strong sheets. Attach to muscle cells to each other in a muscle.|
|Gap Junctions|| Provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to another with special membrane proteins. |
Similar in function to the plasmodesmata in plants.