What is the average radius of the Earth?
What is the thickness of oceanic crust?
What are the compositional layers?
Crust, mantle, core
What is the strongest mechanical layering?
What is the compositional layer with the least volume?
A zone that is a type of convergent boundary?
Is there a material as old as the Earth?
How many terrestrial planets (not counting the asteroid belt) are there?
Counting outward from the Sun, Earth is planet number?
Earth is the largest terrestrial planet in our solar system? T/F
4 elements that are a common part of Earth's mantle?
Fe, Mg, Si, O
The Earth's core is nearly pure Fe? T/F
Diamond and graphite are...?
Identical in composition but different in crystalline structure
Which of the following is the complex ion that forms the basic building block of all silicate minerals?
Seismicity is common along plate boundaries? T/F
The planets all orbit the Sun in the same direction? T/F
Earth's moon, in comparison to other planets with moons, is how big?
Relatively large to Earth
What is the current favored theory for formation of the moon?
What is the most efficient means of getting heat out of the mantle?
About how fast do the plates move?
Two or more minerals can share the same chemical composition? T/F
Is Halite (NaCl) ionically bonded?
A mineral group is the most abundant in the Earth's crust?
A plate can grow smaller with time? T/F
The oldest oceanic lithosphere is almost always found in the middle of oceans? T/F
The amount of land surface hasn't changed much at all through Earth's history? T/F
In Journey to the Center of the Earth, where are Trevor, Sean and Hannah?
In a volcano in Iceland
Continental crust is produced at mid-ocean ridges? T/F
Which of the following is not a scientific impossibility portrayed as?
Rocks that are naturally magnetic
About how old is the Earth (in years; one billion equals 1000 million):
A really cold winter is proof that global warming is a hoax? T/F
A release of methane hydrates or clathrates (same thing) would lower global temperatures by reflecting incoming sunlight? T/F
Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by about how much in the past century?
Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is at an all-time high? T/F
During the last 800,000 years, northern hemisphere glaciations have occurred about how often?
Every 100,000 years
Earth gets more total sunlight when eccentricity is high? T/F
Faster plate spreading rates at mid-ocean ridges are a likely cause of higher sea level in the past? T/F
For the same slope, would shear stress be greater on the Earth or Moon?
From which direction does the wind in MN usually come?
Ice ages are common throughout Earth's history? T/F
Mass wasting is an important process on rocky (i.e., sediment poor) shorelines? T/F
Mean annual temperature in the northern hemisphere has increased by about how much in the last century?
Milankovitch hypothesized that ice ages developed when winters are coldest?
One can discern the direction of longshore drift by examining the amount of sand on the two sides of a jetty or groin? T/F
Output of the Sun is effectively constant? T/F
Over the last 500 Ma, sea-level is thought to have varied by roughly how much?
Rocky beaches are more common on uplifted coastlines? T/F
Surface currents and water waves are the same thing?
Surface currents rotate clockwise in the northern hemisphere? T/F
The Atlantic Ocean off of the east coast of the US has high salinity because evaporation significantly exceeds precipitation there? T/F
The cations that comprise part of ocean salinity are largely from terrestrial weathering? T/F
The greenhouse effect works by atmospheric absorption of visible light from the sun? T/F
The little ice age, a period of cold temperatures in N. America and Europe, occurred about how long ago?
4000 years ago
The net transport of water is parallel to average wind direction? T/F
The superstorms in The Day After Tomorrow are (think about the direction of vertical airflow; is it up or down?) high or low pressure?
high pressure cells
The Younger Dryas, a period of cold climate that followed deglaciation in the northern hemisphere occurred about
10,000 years ago
Thermohaline circulation is driven by density variations of seawater? T/F
To what does angle of repose refer?
The steepest stable angle loose sediment can maintain
Tsunamis are just long wavelength ocean waves? T/F
Water vapor is the primary greenhouse gas? T/F
Wave base is about what fraction of wavelength deep?
Wave refraction creates longshore drift or, at least, accentuates it? T/F
We live in the hottest period of Earth's history? T/F
What does water do to shear strength?
Increases and decreases it
What is regolith?
Unconsolidated material on the Earth's surface
What would have the higher angle of repose?
Mixture of sand and gravel
When the volume of ice in ice caps increases, the ratio of oxygen 18 to oxygen 16 in the oceans increases? T/F
When was the last snowball Earth thought to have occurred?
What has an effect on global temperature?
Volcanoes, output of the sun, ocean circulation, orbital variations
Which of the following is a place where surface water descends to form deep water?
What is closest to the angle of repose of dry sand (all numbers stated in degrees) ?
Which of the following is not a means of removing dissolved content from ocean water?
Which of the following is not a potential sink of sand to a beach?
What are potential sources of sand to a beach?
Dune erosion, stream discharge, longshore drift, onshore drift
What is evidence of creep on a hillslope?
Curved tree trunks, tension cracks
Which of the following is the least likely mass wasting trigger?
Which value is closest to the amplitude of the tides in open water?
Which value is closest to the average salinity of ocean water?
In the movie Volcano, about how long does the magma take to rise from deep in?
In the movie Volcano magma/lava killed many people in what ways?
Volcanic bomb, melted by lava, gas emission burns
In the movie Volcano, which of the following volcano phenomena occurs
Ash fall, lava stream, gas emissions, volcanic bombs
Melting in subduction zones is largely a result of...?
Volcanic island chains in the Pacific are arrayed in lines. This is because they represent magma leaking through long cracks in the crust? T/F
Sediments become sedimentary rock with time; nothing else is needed? T/F
What magma is more likely to erupt explosively?
One which would crystallize into a rhyolite
Magmas contain nothing more than molten rock? T/F
Melting of rock is an uncommon occurrence in the mantle? T/F
Temperatures increase with depth within the Earth along curves
Most magmas and lavas are silicic? T/F
The composition of melt and the parent solid are identical? T/F
Ocean crust is chemically closest to...?
A nearly horizontal layer of crystallized magma is called a...?
Igneous rock with large crystals cooled slow or fast?
Volcanic bombs are just large sized tephra? T/F
The islands in the Hawaiian island chain are good examples of stratovolcanoes? T/F
Which gas is commonly emitted by volcanoes?
The last time Earth's magnetic field reverse polarity was closest to how many years ago?
1,000,000 years ago
Metamorphism usually changes rock chemical composition? T/F
Metamorphism involves melting? T/F
Ripples propagate which way?
Which of the following is not a common cement in clastic sedimentary rocks?
The horizontal banding obvious in many sedimentary rocks is called what?
Sediment deposits are typically close to horizontal? T/F
Which medium moves the most sediment?
Relative to sediment near the top of an accumulation, sediment near the base was...?
Geomagnetic north never changes? T/F
Which rock-forming mineral is important in recording Earth's magnetic field?
None of the above
Earth's magnetic field closely resembles that of a giant bar magnet? T/F
In Tidal Wave, John Wahl stops the last tsunami by?
Triggering a 2nd tsunami that cancels the first
A landslide on the seafloor could trigger a large tsunami as depicted in the movie Tidal Wave? T/F
Most of the world's water is salt water? T/F
There is no strong evidence that the amount of water on Earth's surface has changed dramatically in the last 100 Ma? T/F
The residence time of water in the oceans in about two weeks? T/F
Water typically moves faster through primary porosity than secondary? T/F
The water table is visible within 1 km of the classroom? T/F
The cone of depression is...?
A lowering of the water table near an operating well
Turbulent flow is more likely when...?
When water moves fast
Small, steep mountain streams have higher competence than major trunk? T/F
On which side of a river bend would you expect to find deeper water?
How does average grain size tend to decrease with distance downstream?
Abrasion and Selective sorting
A graded stream is no longer doing any work on the landscape? T/F
A one-hundred year flood could happen two years in a row? T/F
The oceans are really one interconnected ocean? T/F
Abyssal plains are found where?
Under much of the world's oceans
Increasing the confining pressure of ice promotes what?
The most reasonable velocity for glacier flow is?
Ductile flow in glaciers happens year round? T/F
Retreating glaciers flow uphill? T/F
Glacial ice below the snowline formed there? T/F
Lateral moraines form as melting ice deposits the sediment it was carrying? T/F
River valleys are V-shaped? T/F
If you melt all the ice on the planet, very little land will be left exposed? T/F
The discharge of a stream during flood stage increases very rapidly with increasing recurrence interval? T/F
Stream discharge lags precipitation by less time in urban watersheds? T/F
A rocket launched along a path following the equator would appear to travel what way?
Neither north nor south
Hurricanes rotate counter-clockwise in the northern hemisphere? T/F
The water in Earth's oceans was significant less saline in the distant geological past than today? T/F
Water in the hydrosphere may have be from (at least in part) from comets? T/F
What was threatening the main characters in Ice Age 2?
The main characters in Ice Age 2 are mammals that co-existed when?
The Pleistocene (2 Ma to 10,000 years ago)
A fault that cuts both a fold and an igneous intrusion proves the intrusion is older than the fault? T/F
About how many years old did Bishop Ussher believe the Earth to be?
About how thick is the troposphere?
Aerobic bacteria appear in the geologic record more than 1 billion years? T/F
Air moves because of differences in pressure? T/F
An eroded anticline has the oldest rocks outcropping near the fold axis? T/F
At about which latitude (north and south of the equator) do most deserts exist?
Carbon 14 would be a good method to assign ages to fossil organisms? T/F
Faults are expressions of brittle deformation of rock? T/F
Hominids and dinosauria overlapped in time? T/F
In a reverse fault, the hanging wall moves up relative to the foot wall? T/F
In which rock types would you be most likely to find a fossil?
Lord Kelvin thought the Earth was relatively young based on what?
Earth's heat budget
Meteorites were used to estimate the age of the Earth? T/F
Mountains are anticlines and valleys are synclines? T/F
Normal faults result in horizontal what?
Organisms with hard parts became common in the Archean? T/F
The amount of oxygen in the atmosphere has been pretty much constant? T/F
The amplitude of ground motion of a Richter magnitude 6 earthquake is
10 times larger
The Cambrian explosion refers to a massive meteorite impact? T/F
The diversity of life as measured by the number of species and/or genera on Earth has been continuously and steadily increasing through the last 500 Ma? T/F
The limbs dip away from the axis of which kind of fold?
The radiometric age (age estimated by dating using radioactive isotopes) of a rock isn't affected by metamorphism? T/F
What are stromatolites?
A laminated, rock-like structure built over geologic time by microorganisms such as cyanobacteria
What is an unconformity?
Evidence of missing time in the rock record
What is the half-life of a radioactive isotope?
The time it takes for half of the original amount to decay
Which of the following is unlikely to be a good key bed?
A thin layer of extrusive igneous rock
What molecule is ozone?
Without the Moon Earth would not have tides? T/F
Rock that forms when hot molten rock cools and becomes solid?
The melting point of a rock increases with pressure? T/F
Mid-Ocean ridges create oceanic crust? T/F
Are Dikes horizontal or vertical sheets?
Shield volcanoes explosive or non-explosive?
Marble and quartzite are metamorphic rocks? T/F
Cambrian explosion brought about what?
In a strike-slip fault the motion is...?
In a transform boundary plates move parallel? T/F?