A fleet of warships.
What was an armada?
A republic in England.
What was a commonwealth?
The supposed act of using magical spells and/or poisons against anybody; the trigger of all prejudice and hysteria in Europe.
What was witchcraft?
A monarch's belief that he receives power from God, and that he is responsible to nobody but God.
What is the divine right of kings?
A period of artwork where elongated figures show suffering and heightened emotions.
What is Mannerism?
A political system in which complete authority rests with a monarch.
What is an absolute monarchy?
The period in which artists tried to bring back the classical ideals of Renaissance art with the sixteenth-century religious revival.
What is the Baroque?
The term for a Russian monarch, meant "caesar".
What was the czar?
Refers to a group of nobles defeated by Ivan the Terrible.
What are boyars?
What was the name for French Calvinists?
The Edict of Nantes is also called the Edict of Tolerance, because the act, while recognizing Catholicism as the official religion, also gave Huguenots the right to practice their beliefs, as well as enjoy political life.
Why is the Edict of Nantes sometimes referred to as the Edict of Tolerance?
The Turkish were defeated at the Battle of Lepanto.
Whom did the Spanish defeat at the Battle of Lepanto?
Of which continents did Spain acquire land from?
The Thirty-Years' War was fought from 1618 to 1648, mainly in the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire.
When and where was the Thirty-Years' War fought?
France emerged as a dominant nation after the war ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
What country emerged as a dominant power at the end of the Thirty-Years' War.
Lope de Vega wrote plays to please audiences and satisfy public demand, as well as to make money.
What reason for writing did Lope de Vega give those that asked?
Both visionary dreams and the hard work of reality are necessary to the human condition.
What message is stated in "Don Quixote"?
To protect the rights of people, so the people could act reasonably towards them. If the people feel their government is unjust and unfair, a right is given for them to revolt.
According to John Locke's "The Two Treatises of Government", how is government supposed to rule?
They should rule without fear, and with no limits on power. If the peasant criticizes, the king will see it as a crime and take it with fear and restraint.
According to Jacques Bousset, how should kings rule?
Since Queen Elizabeth the First could not escape war with the Spanish, King Phillip II ordered an armada of ships to invade England, in the hopes that England's people rebel against Elizabeth. The Spanish armada was aware of the English galleons' advantages -- the latter ships were faster, handier, and had many more long-range guns. The defeated fleet met their fate when they tried to sail back to Spain via a passage in the Irish Sea, where storms awaited.
Describe the scuffle between Elizabeth I and Phillip II.
Since Louis XIV was four years old, Cardinal Mazarin did the governing, and crushed a rebellion of peasants, unhappy with the growing power of the monarchy. After Mazarin died, Louis became serious about being King, despite his love for fun and his affairs with the maidens of the royal palace. He dubbed himself as the Sun King -- "the source of light for all of France's people".
Describe the life of King Louis XIV.
"Soon you will become King of a great kingdom.... Try to remain at peace with your neighbors. I loved war too much. Do not follow me in that or in overspending.... Lighten your people's burden, and do what I had the misfortune not to do myself."
What advice did Louis XIV give his successor on his deathbed?
He waged four wars with his neighbors -- all between 1667 and 1713, causing several nations to form coalitions against him.
How did Louis XIV attain his goals?
During his rule, he prevented the nobles and princes from getting in his way by enticing them into court life, which kept them out of politics.
How did Louis XIV take care of the nobles and princes?
He controlled foreign policy, the Church, and taxes as a whole.
What three things did Louis control?
His ministers obeyed his every wish, as Louis "had no intention of sharing [his] authority with them."
How were Louis's ministers supposed to act?
Prussia, which was ruled by Frederick William the Great Elector, improved Prussia by building a large and efficient standing army, which had a total of forty-thousand men. Frederick William's son, William III became William I of Prussia in 1701.
The Hapsburgs, kicked out of the Holy Roman Empire, created a new empire in eastern and southeastern Europe, which included lands in current-day Austria, the Czech Republic, and Hungary, as well as Transylvania, Croatia, and Slavonia.
Ivan IV, the first ruler to take the title of czar ("caesar"), was known as Ivan the Terrible, because he crushed the boyars, and was notorious for other ruthless deeds -- including stabbing his own son to death in an argument. When his dynasty ended in 1598, a period of anarchy -- the Time of Troubles, which did not end until the Zemsky Sobor, or "national assembly" elected Michael Romanov as the new czar.
Who was Ivan the Terrible?
One of the most prominent czars of the Romanov dynasty, he was elected in 1689 and westernized Russia after a sojourn to Europe, changing the military (he drafted peasants for twenty-five year stints, and built a standing army of over 200,000 men), socialization (men and women alike could join each other for conversation and dancing), and even etiquette (it was pointed out that nobody should scratch him or herself at the table). It was not unusual for him to accomplish the impossible -- he wanted his administrators to be both slaves and free men at the same time, but his personality got in the way -- "... if you interpret orders again, you will pay with your head."
Who was Peter the Great.
Peter the Great and his army fought a war with Sweden, and since Sweden lost a clot of land near the Baltic Sea, Russia had finally reached its "window to the West".
How did Russia get its share of Western land?
Shakespeare, one of the most internationally revered dramatists of Elizabethan times, was better known for his understanding of human psychology.
Who was William Shakespeare?
Hobbes, alarmed by the revolutionary upheavals in England, wrote "Leviathan", a political book made to deal with disorder. He claimed "[before society was organized] human life was solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short", and that "humans were not guided by reason and moral ideals; they were guided by a ruthless struggle for self-preservation".
Describe Thomas Hobbes and his magnum opus, "Leviathan".
Locke's natural rights were "life, liberty, and the right to own property."
What were the natural rights stated in Locke's "Two Treatises of Government"?