Biology Chapter 7: Structure & Function of the Cell

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Hooke

First described cell

Golgi

discovered Golgi cell

Chromosome

Made of DNA, in the nucleus

Lignin

Hardens cell walls

Cell Membrane

Semipermeable, surrounds cell

Leucoplast

Stores starch in plants

Nucleolus

Made of DNA and RNA, in nucleus

Cell

Basic unit of life

Ribosomes

Sight of protein synthesis

Middle

Position of lamella

Virchow,

One of the discoverers of cell theory

Mitochondria

Releases energy for the cell

Lysosomes

Loaded with destructive enzymes

Pore

hole in nuclear envelope

Brown

Discovered nucleus

Unicellular

made of single cell

Nucleus

Control center of cell

Guanine

crystals in the skin of fish

Ostrich

Produces largest egg

Organelles

specialized structures within cells to perform certain tasks

Cell Membrane

thin flexible barrior that surrounds and supports the cells

Eukaryotes

possesses a nucleus and membrane bound organelles (plant, animal, fungi, protists)

Prokaryotes

lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles (bacteria)

Nucleus

Control Center

Nuclear Envelope

Double membrane structure surrounding the nucleus

Nuclear Pores

Openings allowing movement of material

Chromatin

uncoiled forms of chromosomes

Nucleolus

Assembles ribosomes

Chloroplasts

green, photosynthesis

Chromoplasts

yellow, orange, or red...common in fruit and flowers

Golgi Apparatus

Packager. Modify, sort, package proteins for storage or secretion

Lysosomes

Janitors or clean up crew. Destruction of waste, dysfunctional organelles or invaders

Cytoskeleton

The Frame Work. Helps the cell membrane maintain its shape and also involved with movement

Microfilaments

Movement of cell (muscles)

Microtubles

Process of cell division (centrioles)

Cilia

short and numerous; moves the organism or materials outside of it

Flagella

long and few; used to propel by a whipping action

Mitochondria

Powerhouse. Location for cellular respiration which transfers stored energy in LARGE molecules to a usable form (ATP)

Ribosomes

Workers and Producers. assemble proteins

Membrane

consists of RNA and protein

Rough E.R.

responsible for producing proteins that are EXPORTED out of the cell; posses ribosomes attached to the surface (hormones)

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Internal Transport System. Moves specific materials throughout the cell; constructs membrane parts

Smooth E.R.

doesn't possess ribosomes, involved in synthesis of membrane lipids and detoxification of drugs

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