Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642)
17th century French philosopher; wrote Discourse on Method; 1st principle "i think therefore i am"; believed mind and matter were completly seperate; known as father of modern rationalism
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
English physician who pioneered vaccination. Inoculated an 8 year old with cowpox to give immunity against small pox
French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)
English philosopher and political theorist best known for his book Leviathan (1651), in which he argues that the only way to secure civil society is through universal submission to the absolute authority of a sovereign.
Wrote Two Treatises of Government. Said human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. He said government was created in order to protect these rights and if the government failed to do so it was the duty of the people to rebel.
His main idea was the Social Contract Theory, he claimed that the government had enslaved the people and that in the social contract, an entire society agress to be governed by its general will. Basically they will be forced to be free. Liberty is achieved by being forced to follow what is best fot he general will because the general will represents what is best for the entire community. He sought a balance between heart and mind, emotions and reason
Wrote Philosophic Letters on the English & Treatise on Toleration. He admired the English freedom of the press, and religous toleration. He criticized France because of its royal absolutism and lack of freedom of thought.
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women, wrote "Vindication of the Rights of Women"