regular rhythmic physical exercise that raises the heart rate to a training level and keeps it there for a period of time, preferably at least 20 to 30 min daily.
first stage of stress in which the body prepares for a fight or flight response by activating the endocrine system.
applicants who can be polygraphed
job applicants who can be required to take a polygraph include guards for certain types of security firms and workers who manufacture or distribute controlled substances and have direct access to these controlled substances.
the use of electronic monitoring equipment to measure internal body functions of which individuals are normally unaware, such as blood pressure and muscle tension. Being able to observe these functions helps individuals to control them.
biometric access devices
security devices that allow access to people based on biological factors, such as their fingerprints, the iris or retina of their eye, or there voice.
a microorganism in the blood system that can cause disease in humans, such as the hepatitis B virus and the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS.
inability to handle continued stress on the job and the feelings of psychological exhaustion.
closed circuit television; a system of cameras and monitors that allow a security officer to observe the monitors in one location and know what is happening in many sensitive areas.
hidden computer programs that unknowingly attach to other programs and files and often destroy or corrupt them.
conditions necessary for administering a polygraph exam
1)the test is part of an ongoing investigation of losses suffered by the employer. 2) the tested employee had access to the property in question. 3) employer had reasonable suspicion of the employee's involvement. 4) employer provides a statement explaining the basis for suspecting the above conditions.
report that may contain information regarding an individual's credit standing, character, reputation, personal characteristics, and mode of living.
exclusive right or privilege of authors or proprietors to print or otherwise multiply, distribute, and sell copies of their literary, artistic, or intellectual creations.
de minimus violations
no direct or immediate relationship to job safety or health.
disease or physical condition that poses a significant risk of substantial harm to the health or safety of the individual or others, such as a highly contagious disease among job holders who work in food preparation. The ADA does not protect people who pose a direct threat unless reasonable accomodations can be made to reduce the threat.
unpleasant or disease-producing stress that is destructive to physical and mental well-being.
employee assistance program
employee assistance program
program usually operated by the human resource department with the help of social service agencies in the community that is designed to help employees with their personal problems, particularly alcoholism, drug abuse, financial indebtedness, and marital conflict.
employee wellness program
program aimed at helping employees stay healthy by encouraging them to obtain the proper rest, exercise, and nutrition, and to avoid smoking, alcohol, and drug abuse.
study of diseases in the environment and of conditions that may cause wide-spread health problems.
application of technology and engineering to human abilities, interests, and feelings. sometimes called biotechnology.
pleasant or curative stress that contributes to interest, enthusiasm, and a zest for living.
fetal protection policy
refusing to hire or insisting on transferring a pregnant or fertile woman who would be unavoidably exposed to substances creating a reproductive hazard. this type of policy is a form of sex discrimination in spite of the risks.
system of computer components between two networks that checks and controls the transfer of information between the networks.
3 categories of variables the influence when fraud will likely occur: intense situational pressures, convenient opportunities, and low moral character or honesty.
federal sentencing guidelines for organizations act 1991
Federal Sentencing Guidelines for Organizations Act 1991
makes companies criminally responsible for internal fraud, and in extreme cases could force the dissolution of a company. penalties can be reduced by effective anti-fraud programs.
general duty clause
general standard of the occupational safety and health act requiring each employer to furnish a place of employment that is free from recognized hazards that cause or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees.
hazard communication standard
OSHA standard that requires employers to notify employees when hazardous chemicals are present in the workplace and to train employees to work with them safely.
any condition where a high probability exists that an accident may occur that will result in death or serious physical harm.
N/EH x 200,000 , N = number of injuries, illness or lost workdays, EH = total hrs worked by all employees during the calendar yr 200,000 = 100 employees x 50 wks x 40 hrs
intermittent explosive disorders
an explosive outburst of angry emotion when a person is out of control and likely to injure someone or damage something
internal financial procedures limits
limits on the dollar amts that various employees are allowed to spend without further authorizations.
the amt of inventory stores actually have relative to what they should have based on how much merchandise they have bought and what has been sold. inventory shrinkage measures a store's losses - mostly through employee theft.
investigative consumer report
an extensive report that includes information on an individual's character, general reputation, personal characteristics, and mode of living.
material safety data sheet. must be maintained by employers for each hazardous chemical that is used, processed, or stored.
injuries and disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome, tendinitis, and sciatica, that are caused from overexertion and repetitive motion.
chemical imbalances that influence a person's neurological functioning and may contribute to a loss of emotional control and violence.
the highest dose of a material or exposures to it that causes no ill effects.
direct relationship to safety or health, but unlikely to cause serious physical harm
disorder that occurs when people allow their romantic fantasies to go unchecked and become irrational desires. this condition may become violent when the person is rejected.
occupational safety and health administration
federal agency that enforces the occupational safety and health act of 1970
an irrational fear held by people who think others are out to harm or destroy them.
legal document obtained from the office of patents and trademarks that protects the inventions and ideas of an inventor for a period of 17 years.
private information developed and owned exclusively by an organization or individual
cases in which there was an occupational injury or illness, including death, but not including first-aid cases consisting of one-time treatment and subsequent observation of minor scratches, cuts, bumps, or splinters.
techniques that use relaxation to reverse the alarm reaction and avoid stress, such as abdominal breathing, transcendental meditation, and biofeedback.
repeated willful violations of a similar nature.
substantial probability of death or serious physical harm and employer knew or should have known of the hazard.
signal detection theory
theory that explains the likelihood that a security officer will detect a problem based on two factors: the detectability of the problem relative to background noise and the expectancy of an occurrence.
strategic partnership programs
voluntary long-term agreements forming cooperative relationships btwn OSHA and groups of employers, employees, union reps, and other stakeholders to improve safety by eliminating serious hazards and creating safe working procedures.
physiological response of the body to a stressor. the initial stage is the alarm reaction, which readies the body to make an immediate response. the second stage attempts to return the body to a state of balance. the third stage, exhaustion, occurs when the body experiences repeated alarm reactions.
use of force or violence against persons or property for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom.
lowest dose level at which toxic effects can be demonstrated.
study of poisonous materials and the exposure thresholds of each.
a word, phrase, symbol, or design that identifies and distinguishes the source of the goods or services of one party from those of others.
voluntary protection programs
programs where mgmt, labor, and OSHA establish cooperative relationships at a workplace. mgmt agrees to meet an established set of criteria, and the employees agree to cooperate with management to assure a safe and healthful workplace. OSHA removes the company from its list of scheduled inspections.
analysis of level of risk and frequency of losses to determine how secure a company's assets are and the potential threats to these assets.
which occupational injuries must be reported to OSHA?
occupational injury must be reported to OSHA if it results in death, one or more lost workdays, restriction of work or motion, loss of consciousness, transfer to another job, or medical treatment other than first aid.
who is not covered by OSHA?
self employed persons, family farms where only family members work, workplaces already covered by other federal statutes, and state and local government.
intentional disregard for a specific OSHA standard or the general duty clause.
provides income continuation and reimbursement of accident expenses for employees who are injured on the job regardless of who was responsible for the accident.
any act taken by an employee that undermines the purpose for which an enterprise exists, including graffiti scrawling, harassment, and practical jokes, as well as violent homicides.
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations.
powerful federation of labor that represents about 80 percent of all unionized workers.
a union security provision requiring both union members and nonmembers to pay dues to the union.
an exception to the secondary boycott rule. when a neutral employer performs the work that was performed by the striking employee, it becomes an "ally" and may be subject to lawful picketing.
alternative dispute resolution
methods of resolving disagreements without litigation, including negotiation, mediation, binding arbitration, and rent-a-judge services.
the process of submitting a labor dispute to a third party for resolution. the third party is called an arbitrator. both parties agree beforehand to accept the arbitrator's decision.
signed statements by workers calling for a union to represent them.
a group of workers that form an appropriate unit for collecting bargaining.
the range of feasible alternatives on each bargaining issue that both management and union are willing to consider during negotiations.
bilateral decision making
decision-making process that uses two-party bargaining to reach agreement.
means for overcoming a bargaining impasse by referring the labor dispute to an outside party with agreement beforehand that both sides will accept the arbitrator's decision.
blocking charge rule
an NLRB election is barred because an unfair labor practice charge affecting the proposed bargaining unit is pending.
a full-time union employee who supervises the local union headquarters and helps to administer the union contract.
an illegal strike that is called by a group to protest the results of a certification election and to force the employer to recognize a union other than the union that won certification.
an NLRB election is barred because the initial year following certification of the union has not elapsed.
a union security provision that an employer hire only union members. closed shops are illegal except in the construction industry.
when more than one employer negotiates with a single union.
process of negotiations between an employer and a union regarding wages and working conditions.
common situs picketing
when employees strike an employer that shares its premises with another employer, the union's picket signs must clearly indicate which employer they are striking.
a union organized and dominated by the company. these were ruled illegal by the National Labor Relations Act.
er's can be sued for giving inaccurate and derogatory reasons for terminating ee's even though the er never tells anyone but the ee. when ee applies for a new job and is asked to explain reason for leaving, ee is required to provide explanation that can e considered compelled self-defamation.
a nonunion company grievance procedure designed to hear and respond to employees' complaints.
an alternative work schedule in which ee's work fewer days per week by working more hours on days they work. most typical compressed work-week schedule is four 10 hour days, called the 4/40 plan.
negotiations that result in wage reductions or work rule "give backs"
an informal process of agreement used by the National Labor Relations Board or the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service to resolve industrial disputes.
when an employer, upon learning that the employees have petitioned for a representation election, consents to an election and agrees to a date.
a decision constructed by a court that an employee who quit was actually discharged because of intolerable working conditions.
a union-initiated public boycott of an employer's goods or services.
an NLRB election is barred because a valid union contract already exists.
the period of time when employees on flexible work hours must be at work.
a union comprised of members who work in the same craft, such as carpenters or electricians.
an election held by the NLRB to determine whether the majority of employees wish to decertify a union.
making slanderous or libelous statements about a person that harms the person's reputation or professional credibility.
a representation election that is directed by the regional director of the NLRB after determining that employees' petition for an election meets the necessary criteria.
a bargaining strategy in which each party tries to maximize its own outcomes at the expense of the other party.
when a firm has two separate operations, one union and one nonunion.
disciplinary actions follow an accepted procedure that protects an employee from arbitrary, capricious, and unfair treatment.
a provision that allows union dues to be paid directly to the union by the company's payroll office if a member signs an affidavit agreeing to a payroll deduction.
an NLRB election is barred because a valid election was held during the preceding twelve months.
the practice that allows employers to hire whomever they want for as long as they want; either party may terminate the employment relationship at any time.
the application of technology and engineering to human abilities, interests, and feelings. sometimes called biotechnology, it considers the mutual adjustment of people and machines in improving organizational effectiveness.
the practice of requiring employers to hire extra workers who are not wanted or needed. although featherbedding provisions in a labor agreement are illegal, the courts have said that the collective bargaining process - not the courts - should decide which jobs are necessary.
an alternative work schedule that allows employees to set their own work hours subject to specific constraints, such as requiring them to work a specific number of hours per day or per week and to be at work during a core period.
when an employer intentionally misrepresents the truth, thereby causing severe damage for an employee.
the requirement that both parties meet and make offers and counter proposals in an effort to reach an agreement.
a work-related complaint or formal dispute that is brought to the attention of management.
combining tasks to eliminate highly specialized jobs and to make larger work modules.
hot cargo clauses
an agreement that requires an employer to cease doing business with a nonunion company. these agreements are illegal.
an oral or written promise by an employer to continue the employment relationship either indefinitely or for a designated time.
indirect sexual harassment
when 2 people are romantically involved and one partner receives preferential treatment, then other members of the work group who did not get promoted can claim that they were the victims of unlawful sex discrimination.
a union comprised of members who work for the same company or industry regardless of their particular crafts.
a court order prohibiting a person or group from carrying out a given action, such as a strike or boycott, that would cause irreparable damage.
when an employee refuses to follow a supervisor's instructions.
a bargaining strategy in which both parties work together cooperatively to achieve the best outcome for both.
a method of settling a collective bargaining dispute where an impartial arbitrator renders a decision that is binding on both the employer and the union.
involuntary absenteeism and turnover
when employees miss work or are terminated for reasons beyond their control.
changing a job to make it significantly different in terms of the amount of variety, autonomy, and responsibility for the job. it involves a significant change in the content of the job, rather than just making it more of the same.
a work arrangement whereby two workers split one job. each worker is responsible for his or her share of the job. they split the salary, the benefits, and the responsibilities.
simplifying a job by reducing the number of elements or activities performed by a job holder. it normally involves more repetitive activities with short work cycles.
an illegal strike resulting from a dispute between two unions about which union has jurisdiction over certain jobs.
disciplinary action should only be taken for good and sufficient reason.
the employer closes the doors of the company and refuses to allow the employees to continue working.
maintenance of membership
a provision that required that employers who join a union voluntarily must continue paying their membership dues until the present contract expires.
areas of managerial responsibility for which employers claim the power to make unilateral decisions.
a large number of individuals parading in front of a company to advertise their labor dispute.
intervention by a third party into a labor dispute to reduce conflict and help both sides compromise to reach agreement.
the practice of training workers to perform a variety of tasks.
national emergency strike
a strike that in the judgement of the President of the United States would "imperil the national health and safety." In such cases the President may request a court injunction to restrain the strike.
a legal theory that makes employers liable for the abusive acts of employees if the employer knew or should have known about the employees' propensity for such conduct.
national labor relations board
National Labor Relations Board
established by Congress through the Wagner Act to protect the rights of employees, employers, unions, and the general public. Conducts representation elections and resolves unfair labor practices.
agreement that restrict employees from competing with the employer following termination of employment.
Norris-La Guardia Act
Federal Anti-Injunction Act. A law passed in 1932 to encourage the formation of labor unions by neutralizing the differential power between employees and employers.
an impartial person designated by an organization to hear complaints from members who feel powerless and unable to obtain a fair hearing on their own.
a policy that allows all employees, regardless of their positions, the right to discuss a complaint with top corporate officers without being forced to go through a chain of command.
a work arrangement permitting employees to work less that 35 hours per week. this arrangement is considered a permanent rather than a temporary part-time job.
prior petition bar
an NLRB election is barred because a prior election petition was withdrawn by the requesting party within the past 6 mos.
a system of discipline where the disciplinary actions become increasingly severe.
an exception to the employment-at-will doctrine that occurs when an employer makes a promise on which the employer reasonably expects the employee to rely, the employee does rely on it, and, as a result, the employee is injured financially or professionally.
qualified privilege doctrine
allows past employers to share relevant job-related personal information about an applicant with future employers.
an organizational improvement strategy that involves work groups meeting periodically, usually one hour per week, to discuss ways to improve productivity.
an election that is held to determine whether the workers want to be represented by a union.
fair punishment that fits the seriousness of the misbehavior.
right to work
a provision granted by Section 14(b) of the Taft Hartley Act that allows states to forbid union shops, thus making union membership an optional rather than a mandatory requirement to hold a job.
when a union tries to get union members hired at non-union firms in an effort to organizing the other employees.
an illegal action that creates economic pressure on a secondary business, such as a supplier or customer of the primary business, and is thereby designed to create pressure on the primary business.
self-directed work team
a small group of workers who are responsible for autonomously performing a series of jobs.
employees claim they are not working because of illnes.
simple random sample
placing all employees in the sample population and drawing the sample at random.
two entities can be treated as a single employer if they have common management, common labor relations policies, or common equipment and machinery. as a single employer, or joint employer, both entities are legally subject to strikes and picketing activities.
employees report to work but do not work or accomplish anything.
the degree to which a job allows workers to develop and use their skills and to avoid the monotony of performing that same task repeatedly.
stratified random sample
categorizing employees into specified groups according to relevant characteristics, such as job classification or organizational level, and then selecting individuals randomly within each group according to the group size.
a refusal to work by a group of employees.
the opening statement of an arbitration hearing. it outlines the issues to be resolved and the authority granted to the arbitrator by both the union and employer.
an action by secondary unions in support of a strike by a primary union that needs help.
the degree to which a task consists of a whole or complete unit of work as opposed to a small, specialized, repetitive act.
the degree to which a task has a significant impact on the organization, the community, or the lives of other people.
an alternative patter of work where employees work at home and communicate with the home office electronically by computer, telephone, or facsimile.
an arbitration board consisting of three arbitrators rather than one. usually one arbitrator represents the employer's interests, another represents the union's interests, and the third is impartial.
the takeover of a local union by its international union. also called supervisorship.
unfair labor practice
any action by either the union or management that is prohibited by law or NLRB ruling.
unilateral decision making
a decision-making process in which one party (management) can make decisions without the involvement of the other party (employees).
a union security provision that all employees must belong to the union. if new employees are not members, they are required to join, usually within 30 days.
an elected union officer who usually holds a regular job but is given time off to help administer the labor agreement and to represent the interests of union members when problems occur.
giving workers greater authority and discretion by allowing them to perform functions previously reserved for higher levels of management.
voluntary recognition bar
an NLRB election is barred because a reasonable period has not elapsed after a union has been voluntarily recognized by the employer.
voluntary absenteeism and turnover
when employees have a choice of working or not working and they intentionally decide to miss work or quit.
national labor relations act. a law passed in 1935 to establish the legal right for labor unions to exist.
the right of employees to have union representation at investigatory interviews.
successive strikes against members of a multiemployer bargaining unit, usually starting with the most profitable employer in an effort to use the gains obtained from one employer as leverage against the others.
an individual who observes an illegal or immoral action and makes the information public.
employees walk off the job in violation of a valid labor agreement and usually against the direct orders of the labor union.
employees report to work, but they accomplish very little.
a statement employees were required to sign in which they agreed not to join a union.
formula used in profit sharing plans that determines how the profit is allocated to individuals; it is normally based on seniority and performance.
a method of computing the costs of benefits by calculating the total annual cost of each benefit.
jobs that are considered equitably paid and are used in the point method to develop a wage structure. the pay levels for other jobs are determined from the wage curve that was developed using the benchmark jobs. often called key jobs.
the incentive pay that individuals may receive for outstanding performance; it is not part of their base pay.
creating wide labor grades so that there are fewer labor grades with more jobs in each one.
cafeteria benefit plans
employees choose the benefits they desire, subject to certain limitations and total cost constraints.
allows employees to move a certain number of unused vacation days into the next leave year. any unused vacation days above the carryover limit are lost.
cash balance plans
plans that allow employees to decide how their funds will be invested and that are more portable when employees want to move from company to company.
cash profit-sharing plan
a plan in which payments are made to employees at the end of each period.
allows employees covered by such plan to receive their normal daily earnings or some other amount for each unused vacation day up to a certain number of vacation days per year. any unused vacation days above the cash-in limit are lost.
cents per hour
a method of calculating the cost of employee benefits by dividing the total annual cost by the number of employees hours.
a procedure used to develop a wage structure in which the job descriptions for each job are compared with a classification scheme that ranks the jobs in a hierarchy of job worth.
an employee becomes fully vested in a retirement plan after a specified period of time.
consolidated omnibus budget reconciliation act
a law that requires employers of 20 or more employees to extend health insurance group benefits to terminated employees, employees with reduced hours, and their family members.
a procedure that provides for automatic increases in the level of pay based on the rate of inflation - usually indexed to the consumer price index.
a form of incentive pay offered to sales representatives whereby they receive a fixed percentage of the merchandise they sell.
number that compares a person's pay rate with the midpoint of the pay range. a compa-ratio is pay divided by the midpoint of the labor grade times 100.
a controversy that centers on the issue of whether organizations should be required to establish a common set of criteria for evaluating the worth of jobs and to provide equal pay for jobs of comparable worth.
the factors associated with the different jobs that justify paying one job more than another. responsibility education, and skill are usually considered the most important compensable factors.
stock purchase plans that are designed to compensate employees.
workers who do not have an ongoing expectation of full-time employment, such as part-time workers, independent contractors, temporaries, consultants, "life-of-the-project" workers, leased employees, and subcontractors.
contributory pension plans
a plan in which both the employees and the employer make contributions to the pension fund.
cost per employee per year
a benefit costing method that is computed by dividing the total annual cost of each benefit by the number of employees receiving the benefit.
consumer price index
CPI (Consumer Price Index)
a well-accepted measure of the rate of inflation.
procedure for adjusting the wage curve in which higher-level jobs are increased by successively smaller amounts.
initial amount of a covered expense that must be paid by the insured person before the benefit becomes payable by the insurer.
deferred profit-sharing plan
profit-sharing plan in which an employee's share is held until a later period, usually retirement.
defined benefit plan
a pension plan that provides a retirement income to retirees based on formula that usually combines the retiree's years of service and average annual income for the last five years.
defined contribution plan
an individual pension fund created for each employee into which the company and usually the employee invest a specified amount of money each year until the individual retires. the amount of money available to the retiree is determined by how much was contributed and how successfully the money was invested.
differential piece-rate plan
a piece-rate incentive plan that provides a low piece rate for individuals who produce less than the standard and a high piece rate for individuals who meet or exceed the standard.
domestic partner benefits
employer-provided health benefits for an employee's domestic partner and the children of the domestic partner.
a notification by employers to employees within 14 days after a qualifying event that describes the COBRA coverage and the premiums.
employee assistance program
a benefit program that provides counseling to employees with such problems as marital conflict, indebtedness, alcoholism, and drug abuse.
a theory of job satisfaction suggesting that ppl compare their inputs and outputs with the inputs and outputs of others. inputs include such things as knowledge, skill, education, training, and effort. outputs include such things as compensation, benefits, and intrinsic satisfaction.
employee retirement income security act
ERISA (employee retirement income security act)
legislation designed to ensure that ee's covered under private pension plans and employee welfare benefit plans would receive the benefits promised. if an employer chooses to have a pension plan, it must comply with strict requirements.
employee stock ownership plan
ESOP (employee stock ownership plan)
arrangement whereby employees can own shares in the company, the same as if they were ordinary shareholders in a joint-stock company.
employee stock ownership trust
ESOT (employee stock ownership trust)
a financial vehicle that allows employees to own company stock
employees who are exempt from the overtime requirements of the FLSA, such as outside salespeople and executives who have administrative or managerial responsibilities.
additional income and benefits provided for ee's who are transferred to a foreign country.
process theory of motivation in which people decide what to do by subjectively estimating the probability of being able to perform an activity and whether that activity will be rewarding. the 3 components are: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence.
3 components of expectancy theory
expectancy, instrumentality, and valence
rating computed for each employer that is based on number of accidents or the number of employees laid off. rating is used to adjust the unemployment compensation and workers' comp tax rates for each employer.
method for developing a wage structure in which benchmark jobs are compared with other jobs, factor by factor, to determine how much money should be paid for each factor.
health-care insurance plans that allow employees to decide what services they want and health care providers charge a fee for the services they render. these charges are paid by the employee and/or the employee's benefit plan.
responsibilities of the person who manages a pension fund.
adjusting the incentive and base pay components in a compensation package to achieve a balance between security and motivation, such as increasing or decreasing individual incentives, group incentives, or company-wide incentives.
procedure for adjusting the wage curve in which a fixed sum of money is added to every job in the hierarchy.
flexible benefits (cafeteria benefits)
ee's choose the benefits they desire, subject to certain limitations and total cost constraints.
flexible spending account (FSA)
savings plan that enables participants to pay health care and dependent care expenses with pretax dollars deducted from an employer's income by the employer rather than after-tax dollars.
unpaid leave legislated by the FML act that is available when a new child is born to the ee; new child is placed with ee for adoption or foster care; the ee is needed to care for a seriously ill spouse, child, or parent (not parent-in-law); or ee has serious health condition.
law that gives ee's greater flexibility in responding to family needs and medical emergencies without fear of losing their jobs. it entitles eligible ee's to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave each year for specified family and medical reasons.
a pay-for-performance plan such as a Scanlon plan, a Rucker plan, or an improshare plan. most gainsharing plans involve greater employee participation in their design.
money taken from an ee's paycheck as a result of a court judgment brought against that employee by a creditor.
an ee becomes partially vested in a retirement plan after an initial period of time, then becomes vested in an additional percentage each year until fully vested.
group health cooperatives
special kind of HMO consisting of a collection of physicians, hospitals, and clinics that combine to provide health care services for members. the members pay a capitated monthly fee and staff members are paid a fixed salary rather than amt based on number of patients they see in a day.
guide chart-profile method
widely-used job evaluation method that uses three compensable factors - knowhow, problem solving, and accountability, to determine how many points should be assigned to diff't jobs. The Hay method.
Halsey Premium plan
an incentive plan where the workers receive a guaranteed hourly wage plus a percentage of the wage for any time saved.
widely-used job evaluation method that uses 3 compensable factors - knowhow, problem solving, and accountability, to determine how many points should be assigned to different jobs. The Guide Chart-Profile method.
health reimbursement arrangement
employer-provided reimbursements for medical expenses that are excluded from taxable income, but subject to maximum dollar limits for a coverage period. unused funds at the end of the period can be carried forward to subsequent periods.
health plan purchasing cooperatives
health-care plans that contract with health-care providers to purchase services at a discounted rate.
Herzberg's hygiene/motivator theory
motivation theory that identifies 2 types of needs: motivators are associated with the content of the job and contribute to individual motivation. hygiene factors cause dissatisfaction when they are deficient but do not create motivation when they are present. money is a hygiene.
someone who owns more than 5% of the company or earns over a specified amount. employee benefits cannot discriminate in favor of these ee's.
health maintenance organization
HMO (health maintenance org)
provides health care services emphasizing preventive medicine at a fixed monthly rate.
all hours that an ee is permitted to work, plus time when the ee is required to be on the er's premises, on duty, or at a designated work station.
pay-for-performance plan whose name comes from improved productivity through sharing. individual incentives are increased as workers accomplish more work in less time.
reimbursements or expenses paid by an employer that are treated as taxable income to the employee, such as excessive moving expenses or domestic partner health benefits.
independent workers who supervise themselves, pay their own taxes, and are not ee's. they also set their own hours, get paid by the job, furnish their own tools and equipment, determine the work sequence, advertise their services, work for more than one employer, and have opportunity for both profits and losses.
individual wage decision
one of the major decisions that must be considered in the development of a compensation system. this decision considers the issue of whether individuals performing the same job should all receive the same rate of pay or whether individuals who have more seniority, experience, or higher productivity should receive higher pay.
individual practice associations
health-care plans that consist of groups of physicians in private practice who provide some services to HMO subscribers, but most of their patients are not subscribers.
individual retirement plan
IRA (individual retirement plan)
a personal retirement investment program in which an ee can put a percentage of his or her income. the money in the account is not taxed until it is withdrawn.
procedure for developing a wage structure that involves ranking the various jobs in a hierarchy of job worth and then assigning monetary values to them.
process of deciding how much each job should be paid by determining which labor grade the job falls within and the pay range for that labor grade.
procedure for developing a wage structure that is based on an evaluation of the job. the 4 job evaluation methods are the job-ranking method, classification method, point method, and factor-comparison method.
just noticeable difference
amount of money required to take a significant difference in the perception of an incentive. for an individual at a low pay level, a small amt of money would constitute a just noticeable difference, but for a highly paid executive, only a large sum of money would be perceived as a significant incentive.
jobs that are considered equitably paid and are used in the point method to develop a wage structure. the pay levels for other jobs are determined from the wage curve that was developed using the key jobs. sometimes called benchmark jobs.
LTD (long term disability)
insurance that provides disabled ee's with long-term security.
health plan that focuses on reducing health care costs, often through negotiated cost reductions; also called managed competition.
benefits that each employer is required to provide: unemployment compensation, workers' comp, and social security.
Maslow's need hierarchy
theory of motivation based on a hierarchy of 5 needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. money is viewed as something that primarily satisfies lower-level needs.
McClelland's achievement need
theory of motivation built around the need for achievement and its influence on behavior. the characteristics of high need achievers are 1) personal responsibility 2) moderate risk taking 3) desire for immediate feedback. money and incentives are a form of feedback.
social security benefit that pays medical expenses of employees over age 65 and permanent disability payments for individuals under age 65.
increases in an employee's basic wage level based upon performance levels.
merit increase grids
guidelines provided by the HR department recommending appropriate pay increases for different performance levels.
stock purchase plans that involve no compensation expense because the ee's purchase price is not set lower than price of the stock that is offered to all shareholders for the purpose of raising capital.
noncontributory pension plans
plan in which contributions are made solely by the employer.
employees who are covered by the minimum wage and overtime pay provisions of the FLSA.
benefits that employers choose to provide that are not required by law, such as health and accident insurance, pensions, and pay for time not worked.
pay for performance
pay system that ties pay to performance levels.
cluster of jobs along the hierarchy of job worth that are all paid the same rate of pay
range of pay associated with each pay grade, which indicates how much individual incentive is associated with the job.
policy that restricts ee's from discussing their pay and limits the amount of information about pay that can be made public.
program under which employees are paid according to the skills or knowledge they have demonstrated.
income that an ee receives after retirement.
percent of payroll
method of calculating the costs of ee benefits by expressing the cost as a percentage of the total payroll costs.
procedure used for adjusting pay levels in which the pay for every job is increased by a fixed percentage amount.
nonfinancial rewards or benefits (perks)
paid leave that can be used for illness, vacation, or accumulated for early retirement.
amount of money that an ee receives for performing a particular unit of work.
planned pay-level rise
a top-down budgeting strategy that involves centralized decision-making by top managers who determine the overall percentage increase in average pay for the plan year.
most popular job-evaluation method for developing a wage curve. compensable factors of key jobs are used to develop the wage curve. points are assigned to each factor, and the total points are associated with specific pay level.
point of service
health-care plans that are similar to PPOs except for the presence of a gatekeeper who monitors the services rendered.
ability to transfer pension monies from one pension fund to another when an employee changes employers.
preferred provider organizations (PPO)
health-care plans that consist of contractual arrangements between health care providers and an employer or insurance company to provide fee-for service health care, usually at a discount.
premium conversion plans
plan that allows medical plan participants to pay the required plan premium with pretax dollars
program that allows ee's to share in the profits of a company based upon the profitability of the company and an allocation formula determining each employee's share.
qualified domestic relations order.
QDRO (qualified domestic relations order)
court-issued order that instructs a plan administrator how to pay all or a portion of a pension plan benefit to a divorced spouse or to a child.
an individual who is eligible for continuation of benefits coverage under COBRA, which could be an ee, an ee's spouse, or an ee's dependent children.
retirement or stock option plan that has been approved by the IRS for special tax treatment
event that triggers the beginning of COBRA coverage
vehicle for holding assets set aside to support an employer's unfunded deferred compensation obligations.
jobs that are either overpaid or underpaid relative to the amount the wage curve indicates ought to be paid for them. sometimes underpaid jobs are called blue circle or green circle rates.
regular rate of pay
includes basic hourly rate of pay plus any nondiscretionary bonuses, shift differentials, production bonuses, and commissions earned.
consists of seven consecutive periods of 24-hour days
savings plan that enables participants to pay health care and dependent care expenses with pretax dollars deducted from an employee's income by the employer rather than after-tax dollars.
restriction of output
practice of producing less than is possible. this restriction occurs when peer-group norms establish an arbitrarily low standard of performance.
individual retirement arrangement that is funded by after-tax contributions. although contributions do not reduce a person's taxable income, advantage is that contributions plus the investment income they earn are tax-free when they are withdrawn.
Rucker share-of-production plan
company-wide incentive plan in which compensation is based on a ratio of income to value added by the ee's in the production process.
small business job protection act
SBJPA (small bus. job protection act)
law passed in 1996 that raised the minimum wage and made significant changes to pension plans.
company-wide incentive plan that combines profit sharing with a suggestion system.
simplified employee pensions
SEP (simplified ee pensions)
permitted an employer to contribute to an ee's IRA provided this is done for each eligible ee. small business protection ac of 1996 repealed SEPs, although existing plans may continue.
provides financial security when ee's are terminated and have to look for a new job.
program that provides ee's with the continuation of their regular pay when they are unable to work because of illness.
savings incentive match plans for ee's
SIMPLE (savings incent. match plans for ee's)
plan intended to appeal to small employers because it is not subject to the so-called "top heavy" rules under section 416 of the IRS code.
skill based pay
pay system in which ee's pay is partially determined by the ee's skills as a means of motivating ee's to acquire greater skills.
program designed as a forced savings plan in which ee's save money during their working years to provide a pension after they retire.
legal document required by ERISA for each welfare benefit plan offered by an employer that describes the plan's eligibility requirements, a summary of benefits, procedures for claiming benefits and appealing denials, circumstances that could result in loss of benefits, and rights under ERISA
standard hour plan
an individual or group incentive plan that pays a fixed rate per hour where the hour is measured by an hour's worth of work rather than by a standard sixty minutes.
pay increases that are based on performance and length of service.
part of the executive compensation program that allows ee's to buy shares of the company's stock, usually at a reduced price.
individual incentive plan that provides a fixed rate of incentive pay for each item produced.
supplemental unemployment benefits
SUB (supplemental unemployment benefits)
special funds provided by employers as a result of a labor agreement that provides supplementary benefits to employees who are laid off.
three labor markets
blue-collar and nonsupervisory white-collar ee's, professional and technical ee's, and supervisors and managers.
when ee's receive pay increases to the point that their salaries are at the top of their pay ranges, they are said to be topped out. no longer eligible for pay increases based on performance and receive higher salaries only as the entire wage curve is increased,
special assistance provided to an ee who is transferred to a new location. examples: bonus, moving allowance, assistance in buying new home, help in finding employment for spouse.
money provided by the unemployment compensation funds to temporarily assist employees who are laid off through no fault of their own.
performance-based pay that includes individual performance bonuses, executive bonuses, gainsharing, group incentives, profit sharing, and other incentives tied to productivity (as opposed to fixed base pay)
ee's right to receive the money contributed to his or her pension fund by an employer even if the ee terminates employment with the employer.
survey of wages, salaries, and benefits offered by different organizations. wage survey is the major tool used in making the wage level decision. some orgs do on their own and others the BLS does.
a reduction in the relative wage differentials between high and low paying jobs. upper level jobs do not provide sufficient incentives to justify the higher levels of responsibility and skill required to perform them.
line on a wage structure graph that shows higher levels of pay associated with higher-level jobs. most wage curves using the point method are straight lines (linear curve) which are constructed by drawing a freehand line or through regression equations.
wage level decision
one of the major decisions involved in designing a compensation system; compares wages paid in one org with pay in other orgs for ee's performing similar work.
wage structure decision
major decision in the design of the compensation system that examines how much money is paid for different jobs within the same organization.
compensation provided for ee's who are injured on the job regardless of who was responsible for the accident.
budgeting method that requires each program to be justified from the ground up each fiscal year. alternative is to use the prior funding level for that program as the basis for further adjustments.
action research model
strategy of OD that typically involves the processes of problem identification, data gathering, feedback of the data to the client group, data discussion and diagnosis, action planning, action, and reevaluation. these processes are recycled as needed to increase organization effectiveness.
adult learning theory
a theory concerning the adult learning process, which advocates an experience-based, problem-centered, participative, and collaborative training method. also called androgogy.
Asynchronous Learning Networks. Networks of people involved in anytime-anywhere learning. Combines self-study with substantial, rapid, asynchronous interactivity with others who are involved in the learning process.
an evaluation procedure in which employers are ranked by identifying best and worst employees on a list. names are then removed from the list, best and worst of remaining names are identified. procedure continues until everyone on the list has been ranked.
adult learning process, which tends to be more experience-based, more problem-centered, more participative, and more collaborative than traditional grade school.
a training technique in which the trainee, or apprentice, works with a skilled employee who teaches the apprentice how to perform the job.
phase of the systems model of training in which the need for training and development is examined, as well as the resources available to provide the training both within the organization and in the external environment.
a series of problem-solving and decision-making activities in which groups of employees interact. Assessment centers are typically used to assess the management potential of employees; however, they also can be used for training purposes.
behaviorally anchored rating scales. a form of graphic rating scales where each point along the scale is accomplished by a specific behavioral description.
objectives of a training program written in specific behavioral terms that describe the behavior the trainee is expected to learn, the standards of performance the trainee is expected to achieve, and the requirements and time limitations for how the behavior is to be performed.
behavioral observation scales. performance evaluation method that consists of reporting how frequently certain behaviors are observed.
development of a sequential series of career activities that an individual might pursue during his or her career.
a posttest-only design where data are collected only after a training program has been completed.
a form of performance evaluation bias: the tendency for an evaluator to give average ratings to all employees.
process of combining several responses together to form a series of activities that are performed sequentially.
a form of learning involving responses of the autonomic nervous system where a conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to produce a conditions response.
an evaluation procedure in which employees are simply placed in different categories describing their overall performance.
a form of programmed instruction in which the trainee interacts with a computer to learn new info and answers questions asked by the computer.
continuing education units
to maintain their professional certification, many professionals are required to obtain credit for educational experiences. often referred to as CEUs.
the group in a study or experiment that does not receive the training.
a learning experience that combines both work and education. students work as employees in an organization under the direction of their supervisors and academic instructors.
cost per trainee
total cost of training divided by the number of trainees
essay descriptions of especially good or bad responses by employees to their jobs. these descriptions are useful in identifying the important dimensions of successful performance.
difference between training and education
while training refers to the acquisition of specific skills/knowledge, education is much more general and attempts to provide students with general knowledge that can be applied in many different settings.
training that focuses on changing managers' assumptions about the value of openness and feedback and making their behavior congruent with how they think they behave.
process of acquiring general knowledge and information that usually results in a broadening of the responses students are likely to make.
phase of systems model of training in which the evaluation occurs. trainees are evaluated to determine whether the training was successful based on the criteria established in the assessment phase.
experiential group exercises
activities that involve a group of individuals in making decisions and solving problems. the group members learn from participation in the group activity as well as from the group discussion about the activity.
group in a study or experiment that receives the training.
five principles of adragogy
1) learning is experience-based 2) learning is problem-centered 3) learning is enhanced by active participation 4) learning is collaborative 5) learning requires involvement.
an evaluation procedure that requires the evaluator to classify employees according to a predetermined percentage in each category.
an evaluation procedure that contains pairs of items, both sounding equally desirable, but only one item in each pair is actually descriptive of an outstanding performer.
four criteria for evaluating training programs
1) reactions 2) learning 3) behavior 4) results
graphic rating scales
an evaluation procedure consisting of specified dimensions of performance and a rating scale for each dimension to evaluate the employee's behavior.
form of evaluation bias in which one attribute influences the evaluation of other traits. sometimes a distinction is made between the influence of positive and negative characteristics, "halo effect" referring to the influence of one positive perception, and "horn effect" referring to the influence of one negative perception.
hierarchy of habits
an explanation for learning plateaus that suggests that different habits must be acquired. improvements in performance are not observed until new habits are learned.
historical events occurring between the pretest and posttest of a research design that provide competing explanations for any effects that are observed. this is one of the confounding influences that threaten the internal validity of a training evaluation design.
process of learning new behaviors by observing others and by modeling their behavior (also called vicarious learning).
part of the training-needs analysis that examines the abilities of individual employees to identify deficiencies in their performances.
process of teaching and explaining what is right and why it is right.
a learning experience in which students are able to work for a period of time and apply the information they have learned.
degree of consistency between two evaluators who have evaluated the same employee or job applicant.
training technique that involves transferring trainees to different jobs to broaden their focus and to increase their knowledge.
simplifying a job by reducing the number of elements or activities performed by a job holder. it normally involves more repetitive activities with short work cycles.
an extensively used training technique that consists of showing a trainee how to perform an activity and supervising the trainee's attempts to learn it.
training technique that consists of assigning new trainees to an executive board responsible for making a decision.
also known as sensitivity training to T-group training. consists of an unstructured group discussion in which the participants talk about their personal feelings and reactions toward each other.
graphs illustrating the number of correct responses or the percentage of correct responses during successive learning trials.
an organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights.
a form of evaluation bias whereby evaluators tend to rate everyone especially high or low.
level of learning: analysis
level at which learner is capable of understanding why the phenomena exists.
level of learning: application
level at which learner is able to apply the information to practical problems.
level of learning: comprehension
level at which learner is able to grasp the significance of the facts and perceive their importance.
level of learning: evaluation
level at which learner is capable of making judgements of value and worth.
level of learning: knowledge
level at which learner can recall specific facts.
level of learning: synthesis
level at which learner is capable of drawing from related sources of info to gain a broad understanding and reach conclusions.
steps in the action research model
problem identification, data gathering, feedback of the data to the client group, data discussion and diagnosis, action planning, action, and reevaluation.
internal changes within the trainees between the pretest and posttest evaluation that may provide alternative explanations for any effects that are observed. this is one of the confounding influences that challenge the internal validity of a training evaluation.
Management by Objectives.
Management by Objectives
A philosophy of management that reflects a positive, proactive way of managing. It requires all employers to establish written, measurable objectives that can later be used to evaluate performance.
method of successive approximations
process of shaping behavior by selectively reinforcing closer and closer approximations of the correct behavior.
process for learning new behaviors in which the trainee imitates the behavior of a model.
an explanation for forgetting info in which the individuals want to forget it either because it threatens their self-esteem or because it is no longer useful.
physical actions or skills that an individual acquires through practice.
negative transfer of training
when the training activities inhibit performance in the new situation.
negatively accelerating learning curve
learning situation characterized by rapid learning in the beginning with successively smaller increments of learning in later trials.
tendency to overemphasize numbers and to assume that they are more exact and precise than can be legitimately assumed from their subjective derivation.
a reduction in ability or effectiveness caused by lack of knowledge or skill due either to forgetfulness or the creation of new knowledge and technology.
theory of learning that involves the development of stimulus-response associations acquired through selective reinforcement of the correct response.
an examination of the behaviors that an employee must exhibit to be able to perform a task properly. an operational analysis is part of a training-needs analysis.
human resource activities that focus on improving the organization as a whole. process for improving organizational functioning through a series of structured interventions.
an examination of the kinds of problems the organization is experiencing and where they are located in the organization. part of training needs analysis, which examines organizational effectiveness indices, personnel succession, and organizational climate.
an evaluation procedure that ranks employees by comparing each employee with every other employee.
an explanation for forgetting in which information that is not used is gradually forgotten and lost from memory.
an evaluation of an employee's performance by a coworker.
part of the training needs analysis that examines the abilities of individual employees to identify deficiencies in their performances.
horizontal part of a learning curve where no apparent performance improvement appear to be occurring.
positive transfer of training
when the training activities enhance performance in the new situation.
positively accelerating learning curve
learning situation characterized by slow improvements in performance in the early stages followed by significant improvement in later trials.
an explanation for forgetting in which old learning interferes with the acquisition of new information.
training technique that arranges the training material in small sequential steps. ideas are presented one at a time, giving trainee an opportunity to respond to the material and demonstrate master of it.
studies that occur in a natural setting where researchers do not have complete control of the experimental setting. they are not as conclusive as other experimental designs.
form of evaluation bias in which recent events are weighted more heavily in the mind of the evaluator than distant events.
basic philosophy of social cognitive theory that suggests that the environment influences individual behavior but that individuals also influence their environment and change it.
theory of motivation that says behavior is determined by the types of rewards or punishments associated with the behavior.
an explanation for forgetting in which new learning interferes with remembering old info.
training technique in which participants are assigned to act out the roles of other people.
form of role playing in which two or more participants exchange roles and act out a situation.
kind of learning that involves memorization and the association of words, symbols, objects, or events.
s-shaped learning curve
learning situation characterized by slow learning at the beginning and end, with rapid learning occurring in the middle.
format for a performance evaluation interview in which negative comments are sandwiched between positive comments at the beginning and end of the interview.
tendency for people to become fulfilled and achieve all that they have the potential to achieve according to their genetic blueprint.
self-directed work team
group of workers that is largely self-managed and only loosely directed by management. the group collectively decides who will perform which job and members typically rotate from job to job.
belief in one's own capability to perform a specific task.
how we see ourselves based on evaluative impressions of our skills, abilities, and behaviors.
training technique in which the trainees participate in an unstructured group discussion. trainees share their feelings and emotions without the aid of a trainer or a scheduled agenda of topics to discuss.
form of evaluation bias that occurs when an employee's ratings are influenced by a relative comparison with the previous employee.
process of changing behavior that uses reinforcement to selectively reward successively closer approximations of the specific response that is desired.
training technique in which the trainee learns to respond in a training environment that is a reproduction of real-life conditions.
six levels of learning
1) knowledge 2) comprehension 3) application 4) analysis 5) synthesis 6) evaluation
degree to which a job allows workers to develop and use their skills and to avoid the monotony of performing the same task repeatedly. one of the core dimensions of a job.
social cognitive theory
theory of learning based on observational and symbolic learning. learning is influenced by what is reinforced, either extrinsically or though self-administered reinforcement, especially the anticipation of future rewards. the env't influences individual behavior, bu individuals in turn influence their env't.
solomon four-group design
research design in which participants are randomly assigned to four groups: 2 groups are pretested and 2 groups participate in training.
process of learning that uses symbols such as words, mental images, and other cognitive associations.
degree to which a task has a significant impact on the organization, the community, or the lives of other people.
degree to which a task consists of a whole or complete unit of work as opposed to a small specialized, repetitive act. one of the core dimensions of a job.
three phases of the systems model of training
1) assessment phase 2) training and development phase 3) evaluation phase
research design which consists of periodically measuring something and introducing an experimental change during the series of measurements.
Total Quality Management
Total Quality Management (TQM)
program that focuses on providing customers with error-free products through a process of continuous improvement.
process of learning characterized by the acquisition of specific information or skills. training typically refers to the acquisition of specific skills or knowledge that reduce the variability of responding by trainees.
training and development phase
phase of systems model of training in which the training is designed and presented. the training should contain activities and learning experiences that satisfy the objectives established in the assessment phase.
transfer of training
process of acquiring new knowledge or skills in a training environment and then transferring the same knowledge and skills to an actual job situation.
data that are collected in such a way that it does not influence how an employee behaves. data that are obrtained from files or archives, for example.
process by which personal attitudes and beliefs are internalized into basic personal values.
training technique in which trainees are placed in a special training room that is a replication of the actual job situation.
process of learning by observing the actions and behaviors of a model (also called imitative learning)
form of evaluation bias whereby employee evaluations must fit a specified average or total. for someone to be rated high, someone else must be rated low.
draw a curve with a plateau
(has at least one part that is a straight horizontal line)
draw a negatively accelerating learning curve
starts at left bottom, goes up and curves to the right. like the top, left quarter of a circle.
draw a positively accelerating learning curve
starts at left bottom, goes horizontally to the right and curves up to the top. like the bottom right quarter of a circle.
draw an S-shaped learning curve
looks like an S... duh! S tilted with the top of it to the right and bottom to the left. slightly.
tests that measure how much an individual has already learned.
a selection procedure is said to have an adverse impact if the selection rates for any minority or gender groups are less than 4/5ths of the selection rate for the highest group.
affirmative action plans
written plans for recruiting and hiring minorities and females. these plans, which are required of gov't contractors and subcontractors, must contain goals and timetables for achieving them.
demeaning comments and actions directed toward older employees, such as age-related jokes, sarcasm, and derisive labels.
a method of testing the reliability of an instrument by using two alternate (or equivalent) forms of that instrument.
tests that measure an individual's capacity for learning.
selection procedure primarily used for selecting managers in which candidates participate in individual and group exercises and are evaluated by observers.
reduction in number of personnel caused by failing to replace people who leave.
a determination of the number of minorities and women in the external labor market who are qualified for employment in the company's job groups.
base rate of success
the percentage of employees who would normally be considered successful without the use of a given selection procedure.
employers are allowed to discriminate on basis of religion, sex, or national origin only when these attributes are necessary for operation of their businesses; that is, when they are bona fide occupational qualifications.
a special application blank that is used to collect extensive information on an applicant's previous experiences and background.
an interview format in which one applicant is interviewed by a group of interviewers at one time.
the practice that allows senior employees whose jobs are eliminated to "bump" less senior employees and take their jobs.
defense available when an employer has a criterion for selection that creates an adverse impact but is job-related and consistent with business necessity.
development of a sequential series of career activities that an individual might pursue during his or her career.
an informal method of subjectivity combining information to arrive at a selection decision.
a comparison of the treatment of similarly situated individuals or groups.
an informal process of agreement used by the EEOC for resolving charges of discrimination.
a method of testing the validity of a selection procedure, sometimes called the present-employee method, in which the predictor and criteria data are collected simultaneously from a group of present employees.
degree of agreement bw two evaluators; inter-rater reliability.
decision constructed by a court that an employee who quit was actually discharged because of intolerable working conditions.
a form of validity that is inferred from the perceived similarity between the content of the predictor and the requirements of the job - sometimes called face validity.
total cost for hiring an individual, including all recruiting, testing, interviewing, and other expenses.
a type of validity that assesses whether a measuring instrument actually measures the psychological construct or trait it purports to measure.
a validity study, either predictive or concurrent, in which the predictor data are statistically correlated with the criteria of performance.
disease or physical condition that poses a significant risk to the health or safety of the individual or others, such as a highly contagious disease among food preparation workers. the ADA does not protect people who pose a direct threat unless reasonable accommodations can reduce the threat.
to have the effect of discriminating. a recruitment or selection procedure is said to have a disparate impact if the activity tends to significantly reduce the number of minorities or females who are accepted for employment. it is a legal basis for pressing charges of discrimination.
legal foundation for charges of illegal discrimination that is available when employment actions are improperly based on disability, age, race, religion, sex, or national origin. evidence of a discriminatory motive must be shown.
Dictionary of Occupational Titles: This dictionary consists of over 13,000 job descriptions compiled by the Department of Labor.
dual career ladders
managers can move up two career ladders simultaneously. movement up the managerial ladder means greater power and decision-making authority, and movement up the technical ladder means greater autonomy in practicing the profession.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
an authorization to recruit a new employee to fill a job opening.
the practice that allows employers to hire whomever they want for as long as they want and either party may terminate the employment relationship at any time.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
is a gov't agency created by the 1964 Civil Rights Act. It enforces Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, Section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the ADA of 1991.
orders issued by the president of the U.S. Several executive orders have been influential in reducing discrimination, especially Exec Order 11246, which requires gov't contractors and subcontractors to adopt affirmative action plans.
a manager who is assigned to work in a foreign country
bar charts showing the probability of being a successful performer for various categories of predictor scores.
a form of validity that is inferred from the perceived similarity between the content of the predictor and the requirements of the job - also called content validity.
individuals who obtained sufficiently high predictor scores to be hired, but they are poor performers.
a group decision-making process in which group members don't interact face to face. Info from each individual is collected separately, integrated, and sent back to group members who are then asked if they would like to revise their opinions.
individuals who were not hired because of low predictor scores but would have been outstanding performers.
how long it takes to replace a departing employee or fill a new job opening.
guideline used by the EEOC to determine whether a selection procedure has an adverse impact on selection. selection procedure is biased if the selection rate for any protected group is less than 4/5ths of selection rate for any other protected group.
attitudinal and organizational barriers that inhibit the career advancement of women.
goals and timetables
when an underutilization analysis identifies a job group that is under-represented with minorities or women, the company is expected to develop goals and timetables in its affirm action plan for correcting the imbalance.
a method of conducting interviews in which one person interviews a group of applicants at one time.
a visa classification that provides employers with the ability to hire workers with specialized training from the global labor market to meet critical, but usually temporary, business needs.
private employment agencies that search for individuals who are able to assume positions of leadership for client organizations.
human resource information system. An integrated system of employee information that is usually computerized.
a statement, usually in an employee handbook, that creates the expectation that an employee will not be terminated except for good cause.
individual expectancy chart
an expectancy chart showing the probability that an individual will be a successful performer given different predictor scores.
institutional expectancy chart
a chart showing what proportion of new hires will likely be successful performers given different cutoff scores.
degree of agreement between two evaluators who have evaluated the same employee or job applicant.
analysis within a company that produces a job description or a job specification.
an internal recruiting process that allows employees who believe they have the necessary qualifications to apply for a job that has become vacant.
the description of the duties, responsibilities, working conditions, and reporting relationships contained in a job.
a label or occupational code number associated with each job. each job in the dictionary of occupational titles has a unique nine-digit identification number.
job knowledge test
a simple test that measures the specific knowledge and vocabulary associated with a particular job.
an internal recruiting process in which job vacancies are advertised to present employees. employees who want to be considered for the job vacancy are allowed to bid for it by completing an application.
job sample test
simple test that requires applicants to perform a defined segment of the actual job to assess their potential.
public employment agencies operated by each state under the general direction of the fed gov't. job service provides job placement, training, counseling, and testing as free services to those who use it, and it is funded by a portion of unemployment compensation benefits.
workers who are hired by a multinational company to work in their own country. also called host country animals.
a method of long-term forecasting in which probabilities of movement among job categories in one period are used to forecast movement in a later period.
a legal theory that makes employers liable for the abusive acts of employees if the employer knew or should have known about the employees' propensity for such conduct.
employment practices that are considered unfair because they show favoritism to friends or relatives.
an unstructured interview in which the interviewer allows the interviewee to discuss whatever he or she wishes to discuss.
Occupational Information Network. An internet database designed to replace the DOT.
Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs. A government agency in the DOL that reviews the affirmative action programs of gov't contractors and monitors their compliance.
Order Number 4
common name for Executive Order 11246, which requires gov't contractors to develop affirmative action plans.
a disabled individual who is capable of performing the essential functions of a job if necessary barriers created by their disability are eliminated.
an interview format in which one applicant is interviewed by a group of interviewers at one time. also called a board review.
structured interview in which the interviewer asks a series of predetermined questions.
method of testing the validity of a selection procedure, also called follow up method, in which predictor information on a group of applicants is statistically correlated with performance data that are collected after applicants have been hired and trained.
Privacy Commission's five procedural rights for employees
1) notice 2) authorization 3) access 4) correction 5) confidentiality
a long term forecasting method that uses probabilities of future events to estimate future employment levels. a stimulation is a sophisticated probabilistic model.
promotion from within
an internal recruiting method in which vacancies in management positions are filled by promoting lower-level managers.
qualified privilege doctrine
allows past employers to share relevant job-related personal info about an applicant with future employers.
race categories for EEO reporting
1) white 2) black or african american 3) asian 4) native hawaiian or other pacific islander 5) american indian or native alaskan 6) 2 or more races 7) hispanic or latino
efforts by an employer to facilitate the employment of a disabled person that are not excessively expensive and do not interfere with normal operations.
statistical technique for predicting the value of one dependent variable by a weighted combination of other independent variables.
repeatability or consistency of measurement
an organizational chart showing the employees who hold various positions and their most likely replacements.
where preferential treatment is shown to females and minorities, often to achieve an affirmative action goal.
right to sue
notice issued by EEOC to a complaining party after investigation and conciliation that further efforts to seek redress will need to come through civil litigation.
Civil Rights Act of 1866 that guarantees all citizens of the U.S., regardless of color, the right to make and enjoy the benefits of contracts.
percentage of individuals hired relative to the total number of applicants.
an interview in which the interviewer determines the major questions beforehand, but allows sufficient flexibility to probe into other areas as needed to evaluate an applicant's personality.
any unwelcome sexual advance, requests for sexual favors, or physical contact of a sexual nature, including conduct that interferes with a person's performance or that creates an intimidating or hostile environment.
an interview that consists of asking job candidates to respond to a series of hypothetical situations by deciding what actions and solutions they actually would perform on the job.
a method of assessing the reliability of an instrument by splitting the instrument into two parts and determining if applicants obtain similar scores on both halves.
method of interviewing in which the interviewee is subjected to intentionally created stress to observe how well he or she performs in that situation.
method of testing the validity of a selection procedure by combining jobs that require similar abilities and by separately validating the specific predictors intended to measure those abilities.
employment discrimination that results from normal operation of HR systems, esp. the procedures used for hiring, promoting, compensating, and training ee's. because these practices can create disparate effect on employment of minorities and females, EEO laws require their elimination.
type of interview that relies on a careful job analysis to identify the critical job requirements (target dimensions) for each position. interview questions focus on what person has done in previous situations relative to job requirements.
ten job categories for EEO reporting
1) exec/senior level officials 2) first/midlevel officials and managers 3) professionals 4) technicians 5) sales workers 6) office and clerical workers 7) craft workers (skilled) 8) operatives (semiskilled), 9) laborers (unskilled), and 10) service workers.
method of assessing reliability of a measuring instrument by administering it twice to the same population with a brief interval of time between the two administrations and then correlating each individual's first and second scores.
a method of long-range forecasting in which employment levels are associated with levels of business activity. trend projections include simple linear extrapolations as well as more sophisticated techniques of regression analysis.
percentage of employees to leave the organization during a given period of time.
two types of verification required by IRCA
1) proof of identity 2) evidence of employment eligibility
involves a comparison of the percentages of minorities and women in each job group with their respective availability in the surrounding labor force. where the percent available exceeds percent employed in each job group, _____ exists.
extent to which a predictor variable is correlated with a criterion variable.
correlation coefficient showing the relationship between a predictor and a criterion.
using the validity evidence based on a few jobs to infer that the same tests would be valid for other related jobs.
an expatriate manager who lives at home and works long distance, instead of relocating.
weighted application blank
application blank containing valid information that can be weighted, used to form a composite score, and then used for making a selection decision.
method of short-term forecasting in which the number of employees is identified by computing how many employee hours will be needed to produce the output that the organization expects to achieve.
ratios that show the number of applicants at one stage of recruiting process who move to the next stage. these ratios provide valuable information for recruitment planning.
a style of leadership that focuses on communicating an organizational vision, building commitment, stimulating acceptance, and empowering followers.
number of separations during the month divided by average # of employees during the month X 100
persons who are not employed but who are available for work and are seeking employment.
data that are collected in such a way that it does not influence how an employee behaves. for example, data that are obtained from files or archives.
the quality of measurement, referring to its ability to actually measure or predict what it intends to measure or predict.
a strategic concept showing the rel'ps btwn organizations, where each firm represents a link in a chain of value that receives inputs from suppliers, adds value to them, and passes them on to buyers.
an expatriate manager who lives at home and works long distance instead of relocating.
exists when the rel'p btwn the HR department and the line managers is one of providing advice and counsel and when the authority for deciding what to do is shared.
the degree to which workers are free of the direct influence of a supervisor and can exercise discretion in scheduling their work and in deciding how it will be done.
period of time following World War II when there was a significant increase in birthrate in the U.S.
refers to idea that there are 3 important stakeholders for every company - stockholders, customers, and ee's, and that expectations of all 3 need to be simultaneously satisfied, and interests of all 3 are interrelated.
decline in the birthrate that occurred during the Great Depression.
the number of live births per 1,000 population OR the number of live births per 1,000 adult females.
Bureau of Labor Statistis
An agency in the DOL that collects and publishes information about the labor market.
a characteristic of organizations in which the authority to make organizational decisions is retained by top managers within the central office.
change agent role
role of HR managers when they supervise or guide an organizational development intervention.
civilian labor force
all employed or unemployed persons 16 yrs of age and older who are not military personnel nor inmates of penal or mental institutions, or homes for the aged, infirm, or needy.
code of ethics
set of rules that identifies the values that members of the organization, and especially its leaders, consider to be important.
a position of relative advantage over ones competition.
an analysis of each organization with which a company directly competes.
conflict of interest
a situation where a person who has a responsibility to act in the best interests of a company may receive direct personal benefit from his or her actions at the expense of or to the detriment of the company.
exists when the human resource department has the authority to make decisions regarding personnel policies and procedures that line managers are required to follow.
the strategy of bringing outside people into the organization and making them feel obligated to contribute because of their organizational involvement.
unique skills or resources that give an organization a competitive edge.
Current Population Survey
survey of about 60,000 households conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Personal interviews conducted monthly to determine participation in work force, unemp't, & reasons for not working or for only working part-time.
visible symbols and objects that are unique to an organization and that suggest the kinds of shared beliefs and expectations of members.
social values that are shared among the members of an organization and tend to regulate their individual behaviors and induce collective conformity.
characteristic of organizations in which authority to make organizational decisions is delegated to lower-level managers and supervisors.
division of labor
process of dividing work into specialized jobs that are performed by separate individuals.
efficiency / effectiveness
___ how well organization creates product from materials and energy used to produce them - it is a ratio of inputs to outputs. _____ entire cycle of obtaining inputs, transforming them into useful products, selling them, and obtaining more inputs.
an agreement in which an individual agrees to provide labor in exchange for rewards offered by the organization.
providing the conditions that stimulate followers to act in a committed, concerned, and involved way in doing their work.
examining the demographic and social forces influencing the long-term composition of the labor force and future availability of employees.
degree of predictability in an organization's env't as determined by the complexity of the environment and how rapidly it changes.
a manager who is assigned to work in a foreign country.
average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime. the fertility rate of 2.1 represents zero population growth.
a research study that occurs in a natural setting of an organization and where an independent variable is manipulated to determine its effects on dependent variables.
a research study in which variables in an actual organization are measured and correlated; sometimes called a correlational study.
an organizational structure where jobs are assigned to units or departments by function.
an organization which has strategic corporate units in multiple countries that interact both with the headquarters and with each other.
skills and abilities that all human resource managers ought to possess, including strategic contribution, personal credibility, HR delivery, business knowledge, and mastery of HR technology.
process of collecting HR metrics and presenting them to managers in a useful format. sometimes referred to as an HR scorecard.
specific indicators that are used to measure progress or achievement.
process of collecting HR metrics and presenting them to managers in a useful format. sometimes referred to as an HR dashboard.
human capital ROI
[revenue - (operating expense - (compensation cost + benefit cost))] / (compensation cost + benefit cost)
human capital value added
[revenue - (operating expense - (compensation cost + benefit cost))] / total number of FTE
human resource audit
an evaluation by members of a firm, especially supervisors and managers, regarding how well the human resource department is performing its responsibilities and objectives.
human resource generalist
a human resource manager who is required to understand all of the major personnel functions and how they interact with other business functions.
human resource specialist
members of a department who specialize in a particular human resource function, such as staffing, compensation, or employee relations.
human resource value
expected financial contribution to a firm's net income for individuals at various levels in the firm. a measure proposed in human resource accounting to assess the value of a firm's human resources.
balance achieved in an employment exchange where the rewards offered by an organization are roughly equivalent to the contributions that an employee is required to make.
research study that is conducted in a controlled environment where outside influences can be eliminated or controlled.
measures the results of a process or a change, such as sales, profits, and customer service levels.
a measure that precedes, anticipates, or predicts future performance.
authority to make decisions and to direct the performance of subordinates in production, sales, or finance-related activities.
workers who are hired by a multinational company to work in their own country. also called host country nationals.
combination of 2 diff't forms of departmentalization, usually functional and product departmentalization. create dual accountabilities in which workers report to 2 supervisors, usually a functional leader and a product manager.
a global firm that has corporate units located in foreign countries.
refer to what the organization is able to do with the collection of skills, talents, technology, training, and experience possessed by the members of a firm.
characteristics describing an organization that are relatively visible and stable, but amenable to change.
shared beliefs and expectations among the members of an organization that are relatively enduring and resistant to change.
significant stories that are told about an organization's earlier years that impact the way members think about its history even if they are not true.
human resource accounting measure that represents the costs of recruiting, selecting, and training the present employees.
practice of contracting with outside specialists to perform selected human resource functions.
percentage of particular group, such as males or females, who are participating as employees in the labor force.
professional employer organization
companies that contract with employers to manage human resource functions and employer liability by contractually assuming employer rights and responsibilities.
an organizational structure where jobs are assigned to units or departments by product.
an index that is calculated by dividing the total output of goods and services produced in society by the total number of employee hours required to produce them.
a statistical technique for predicting the value of one dependent variable by a weighed combination of other independent variables.
repeatability or consistency of measurement.
a human resource accounting measure that estimates how much it would cost to replace a firm's existing employees in current dollars.
exists when the human resource department provides assistance to the line managers according to their requests.
foundation beliefs that impact how people think about and respond to organizational events, but which are mostly subconscious.
the common expectations that guide the behavior of organizational members.
simple random sample
this method involves placing all employees in the sample population and drawing the sample at random. the probability of any one person being selected is exactly the same as for every other person.
this law requires publicly traded companies and their independent auditors to demonstrate that their numbers are accurate and that they have processes in place to ensure accurate reporting. several sections of the law have important implications for human resource activities.
span of control
number of subordinates assigned to a supervisor.
right and responsibility to advise and assist those who possess line authority.
stratified random sample
this method involves categorizing employees into specified groups according to relevant characteristics, such as job classification or organizational level. individuals are then selected randomly within each group according to group size.
popular approach to strategy development which stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats.
time to fill
total days elapsed to fill requisitions / number hired
style of leadership that focuses on accomplishing work by relying on contingent rewards, task instructions, and corrective actions.