The historical period from around 500 A.D. up to around 1450 A.D. between the fall of Rome and the birth of the Renaissance
seafaring people who raided the coasts of northern and western from the 8th through the 10th century.
System that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land.
Could not be bought or sold but their labor belonged to the lord.
Heavy plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils; a technological innovation of the medieval agricultural system.
a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.
King of Franks; conquered Gaul; earned support of Gaul and Church of Rome by converting; Ruled lands in Frankish custom but kept Roman legacy
Royal house of Franks after 8th century until their replacement in 10th century.
the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslimsin the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival. (250)
Holy Roman emperors
Rulers in northern Italy and Germany following the breakup of Charlemagne's empire; claimed title of emperor but failed to develop centralized monarchy.
William the Conqueror
the duke of Normandy, a province of France, and the leader of the Norman Conquest of England. He defeated the English forces at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and became the first Norman King of England.
This document was signed by King John in 1215. It was the first document that limited the power of the government.
Bodies representing privileged groups
The three social groups considered most powerful in Western countries; church, nobles, and urban leaders.
Hundred Years War
conflict between England and France from 1337 to 1453; fought over lands England possessed in France and feudal rights versus the emerging claims of national states
Called First Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to mount military assault to free the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Pope during the 11th century who attempted to free Church from interference of feudal lords; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over practice of lay investiture.
controversy Dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperors over who held ultimate authority over bishops in imperial lands.
Author of Yes and No; a university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine.
Bernard of Clairvaux
Emphasized role of faith in preference to logic; stressed importance of mystical union with God; successfully challenged Abelard and had him driven from the universities.
argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument.
a medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason
a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries
A powerful, united group of merchants who controlled a great deal of trade from Sweden to central Europe. They monopolized the northern grain trade, and had exclusive rights to export Scandinavian fish from Denmark to the rest of Europe.
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe