EXAM 2

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Which of the following accurately names the body cavities?

Thoracic, abdominal, pelvic

position/projection of the elbow demonstrates the olecranon process free of superimposition?

45 degree external oblique
In order to get a true lateral of the elbow, the patient's arm and forearm must be resting on the table, the elbow flexed 90 degrees and the ulnar head and radius superimposed

the following anatomical structures does NOT pass through the diaphragm?

Esophagus

the following should be used to detect quantum noise in a digital image?

Evaluate exposure indicator numbers
Magnify the digital image

Window level changes the brightness and window width changes the contrast, but that will not help identify quantum noise

the following conventional radiographs are most common during lumbar myelography?

PA and cross-table lateral
These two views are used to demonstrate extrinsic spinal cord compression caused by herniated disks, tumors, or injury

The "cross-table" lateral projection of the cervical vertebrae on a trauma patient fails to demonstrate the C7-T1 interspace. Which of the following should be done to demonstrate this area?

Swimmer's position

The trochlea is part of which of the following bone?

Humerus
The trochlea is part of the articulating surface of the humerus, articulating with the ulna

Which of the following refers to the movement of the laser beam across the CR imaging plate during the reading process?

Fast scan
The laser moves back and forth in a fast raster pattern

How must the patient's arm be positioned for a good AP projection of the scapula?

Abducted

The scapula radiograph you just took at 400S mA, .025 seconds, and 60 kVp had a S-number of 400 because it was underpenetrated. How would you adjust your technique?

400S mA, .025 seconds, 69 kVp
By simply increasing the kVp 15%, the scapula will be penetrated and properly exposed with a S-number of 200.

The spinal cord passes through the _______ foramen.

vertebral

Which of the following structures will be demonstrated if the patient is placed in a 25-30 degree LPO position and the CR is directed 1" medially to the right A.S.I.S.?

Right sacroiliac joint

Posterior oblique positions of the sacroiliac joints will demonstrate the joints farthest from the image receptor. Both sides are done for comparison.

Which of the following is the correct automatic film processing cycle?

Develop, fix, wash, dry
In a 90 second automatic film processor the film is in the developer for 25 secs., fixer 21 secs., wash 9 secs., dryer 20 secs., and 5 secs. for each of the three crossovers

Which of the following describes a long scale of contrast?

Low contrast
A long scale (low contrast) means there will be several different densities, with little difference between each density.

Excessive noise suppression of a digital image can result in which of the following problems?

Loss of spatial resolution
Smoothing the pixels together causes a loss of spatial resolution

What are the appropriate breathing instructions to a patient for an AP projection of the thoracic spine?

"Take in a deep breath, let your breath out and hold your breath out."

A general rule for breathing instructions is "inspiration for exams above the diaphragm and expiration for exams below the diaphragm". This is one exam where that rule is different. Simply saying "hold your breath" is not acceptable!

GFR stands for:

glomerular filtration rate.

GFR stands for glomerular filtration rate.

Which tarsal bone articulates with the 3rd metatarsal?

Lateral (3rd) cuneiform

A good way to remember this is the 1st cuneiform (medial) articulates with the 1st metatarsal, the 2nd cuneiform (intermediate) articulates with the 2nd metatarsal and the 3rd cuneiform (lateral) with the 3rd metatarsal.

Which of the following positions/projections will best demonstrate cartilage degeneration in the knee joint?

AP weight-bearing

AP weight-bearing projections are usually done bilaterally for comparison. They may also be done PA with the knees partially flexed.

Which of the following is essential when trying to demonstrate soft tissue?

Low kVp
In order to demonstrate soft tissue, some x rays must be absorbed. The only way soft tissue is going to absorb x rays is if they are low energy (low kVp). For example, mammography does not use over 25 kVp to demonstrate the various breast tissues

What is the purpose of the breathing technique for an RAO sternum?

Breathing decreases the heart rate to prevent motion
A moving sternum can be seen below the ribs

To blur the overlying lung markings and ribs

Shallow breathing during a three second exposure works best.

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