AP World History Terms

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Garrison Spring Semester 2012

lateen sail

Triangular sail developed by Arab or Indian merchants which was eventually adopted by Euroop, a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, and running in a fore-and-aft direction. Adopted in the Late Middle Ages, and Europeans were able to sail out of the Mediterranean

astrolabe

Navigational instrument that helped to determine latitude by using the position of the sun

volta do mar

"Returning through the sea," a fifteenth-century Portuguese sea route that took advantage of the prevailing winds and currents.

Prince Henry "The Navigator"

Member of the royal family of Portugal in the 15th century who sponsored a series of voyages along the west coast of Africa. These journeys eventually led to the success of Bartholomeu Dias and Vasco de Gama who rounded the southern tip of Africa in the late 1400's

Sao Jorge de Mina

Location of fortified Portuguese trading posts in modern Ghana. Exchanged horses, leather, textiles, and metal wares for gold and slaves

Bartolomeu Dias

Portuguese explorer who rounded the southern tip of Africa in 1488. Never made it to the Indian Ocean

Vasco de Gama

Portuguese explorer who sailed around Africa and made his way to India where he traded for spices. Began the Portuguese dominance of the spice trade.

Cristoforo Colombo

Christopher Colombus, began the Colombian exchange.

Martin Beaim

German cartographer who is believed to have created the earliest surviving globe in 1492.

Ferdinand Magellan

Portuguese (Sailed for Spain on the trip around the world). Died in the Philippines but his crew made it all the way around the world.

northwest passage

A water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through northern Canada and along the northern coast of Alaska. Sought by navigators since the 16th century.

Francis Drake

British sea captain who raided Spanish ships and ports as privateer and scouted the west coast of North America in conjunction with his attacks on Spanish interests in Latin America

James Cook

English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands (1728-1779)

Afonso d'Alboquerque

Commander of Portuguese forces in the Indian Ocean (16th century). Seized several strategic islands (Hormuz, Goa, and Melaka) and forced passing ships to have a pass from Portugal or have their cargo confiscated. Violators were executed or de-handed. Portugal eventually lost its tight hold on the Indian Ocean basin. (even when it was strong, it didn't have enough vessels to strictly enforce its laws—other civilizations were still prominent in trade)

Goa

Portuguese base on the west coast of India from which they aided Hindus and trade with the interior.

Melaka

A thriving spice trade port on the Malay Peninsula controlled by the Portuguese

joint-stock company

An association of individuals in a business enterprise with transferable shares of stock, much like a corporation except that stockholders are liable for the debts of the business

Lopez de Legazpi

Took over the Philippeans with little bloodshed because other Asian areas resisted; only the Muslims in this country resisted

Mindanao

Southern island in the Philippines which resisted Portuguese control and stayed Muslim.

Jan Pieterszoon Coen

The Dutch merchant Jan Pieterszoon Coen (ca. 1586-1629) founded Batavia as governor general of the Dutch East India Company. Possessed of great administrative and military ability, he contributed greatly to the expansion of Dutch influence in the East Indies.

Seven Years War

Known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.

Columbian Exchange

The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.

smallpox

A highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever and weakness and skin eruption with pustules that form scabs that slough off leaving scars

African slave trade

African peoples captured and taken as slaves to South America (sugar cane plantations) and North America (cotton plantations)

Manila Galleons

Spanish ships that traded in between Manila, Asia and Mexico, stirring their cultures.

Martin Luther

German theologian who led the Reformation

Henry VIII

English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)

John Calvin

Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)

Council of Trent

The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.

Ignatius Loyola

(1491-1556) Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits (1534); this order of Roman Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation.

St. Teresa of Avila

Set up own convent of Carmelite Nuns and was asked to reorganize and reform convents and monasteries in Spain

witch-hunting

An investigation carried on with much publicity, supposedly to uncover dangerous activity but actually intended to weaken the political opposition.

Spanish Armada

The Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.

Thirty Years War

(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.

Charles V

Holy Roman Emperor and Carlos I of Spain, tried to keep Europe religiously united, inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Emperor from his grandparents, he sought to stop Protestantism and increase the power of Catholicism. He allied with the pope to stamp out heresy and maintain religous unity in Europe. He was preocuppied with struggles with Turkey and France and could not soley focus on the rise of Protestantism in Germany.

Spanish Inquisition

This was the harsh and violent conversion of Spain back into Catholicism. They used several versions of torture and fear tactics to convert people back to Catholicism

Charles I

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649

absolutism

A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

Louis XIV

King of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)

Versailles

Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.

Peace of Westphalia

Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.

balance of power

The policy in international relations by which, beginning in the eighteenth century, the major European states acted together to prevent any one of them from becoming too powerful.

urbanization

The movement of people from rural areas to cities

putting-out system

The merchant loans raw materials to several cottage workers, who processed the raw materials in their own homes and returned the finished product to the merchant.

Adam Smith

Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)

Nicolaus Copernicus

Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)

Galileo Galilei

Scientist who built the first telescope and proved that planets and moons move. Persecuted for supporting Copernicus' ideas

Issac Newton

British scientist who defined the laws of motion, discovered gravity, experimented with optics, invented differential calculus and wrote "Principia"

Voltaire

French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.

Deism

The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.

Dona Marina

Aztec woman who became an interpreter for Hernando Cortes during his conquest of the Aztec empire

Tainos (Arawaks)

Most prominent Native American people in the Caribbean region in the 1400's. First to interact with Spanish explorers.

Encomienda

A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it.

Hernan Cortes

Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain.

Francisco Pizzaro

Led conquest of Inca Empire of Peru beginning in 1535; by 1540, most of Inca possessions fell to the Spanish

Audiencias

Courts appointed by the king who reviewed the administration of viceroys serving Spanish colonies in America.

Treaty of Tordesillas

Pope sponsored agreement between Spain and Portugal to divide the world so that Africa and Asia would come under Portuguese control and the Americas would come under Spanish. (1494)

Pero Alvares Cabral

Claimed Brazil for the Portuguese in 1500

Peninsulares

Immigrants to Latin America born in Spain or Portugal

Creoles

Born in the Americas with Iberian parents

Mestizos

Mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry

Mulattoes

Mixed Spanish and African heritage. Many were slaves

Zambos

Mixed African and Native American heritage. Usually slaves

Potosi

Richest silver mine in the Andes Mountains

Quinto

Spanish gov't claimed 1/5 of silver produced in their colonies

Repartimiento

Replaced encomienda system, supposed to provide shorter work periods and fairer pay

Engenho

Plantation in Brazil dedicated to sugar production

Benardino de Sahagun

Franciscan missionary in Mexico who preserved Native culture before Spanish arrived

Botany Bay

Site in Australia where James Cook dropped anchor in 1770, penal colony established in 1788

Chamorro

Natives of Guam and Mariana Islands who were taken over by the Spanish

Thomas Peters

spokesman for 200 black families, he went to london to petition for better treatment, he escaped to Nova Scotia with his family and many others, had escaped two times before

Gao

capital of Songhay empire

Sunni Ali

the leader of the Songhai, who in 1468, stormed into Timbuktu and drove out the Berbers beginning a campaign of conquest of the Sahara; by the time of his death in 1492 he had built the largest empire in west Africa

King Afonso I

Kongolese ruler (r. 1506 - 1542) who converted to Christianity and tried, unsuccessfully, to save his realm from the depredations of Portuguese slave raiders and merchants

Queen Nzinga

led spirited resistance against portuguese forces (conquest of angola), thought of as a king rather than a queen, mobilized central african peoples against her portuguese adversaries and allied with Dutch mariners who traded on african coast. Her aim= drive portuguese from her land, then expel dutch, and finally create a vast African empire embracing the entire lower Congo basin

Great Zimbabwe

City, now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone structures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state. (p. 385)

Cape Town

Trading post in South Africa started by the Dutch in 1652

Hottentots

Dutch term for native South African people

Fulani

West African group who obeyed strict Islamic laws

Dona Beatriz

proclaimed to be possessed by St. Anthony to communicate messages from God, taught her followers that Jesus was a black man, later burned at stake

Manioc

Crop that came to Africa as a result of the Colombian Exchange

Sao Tome

controlled by portuguese, had perfect soil for growing sugar, producted much in demand in europe, used african american slaves to harvest sugar establishing the first modern colony dependant on slave labor

Middle Passage

Journey of slaves from Africa to Americas

Dahomey

(ca. 1650- 1894) African kingdom in present day southern Benin, reaching its height of influence in the eighteenth century. Its leaders sought regional power by raiding for slaves in other kingdoms and then selling the, for firearms and other European goods

Rum

Yum ;) very important commodity in European-American trade

Maroons

Runaway slaves who started their own communities

Saint-Domingue

French colony in modern day Haiti, site of slave rebellion

Gullah

Language spoken by slaves in South Carolina

Olaudah Equiano

Wrote about the harshness of slavery in an attempt to abolish it

Matteo Ricci

an Italian Jesuit priest, and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China Mission, as it existed in the 17th-18th centuries.

Yongle

(1403-1424) Chinese Emperor who launched a series of naval expeditions that sailed throughout the Indian Ocean. He compiled the Encyclopedia -- a collection of Chinese philosophical, literary, and historical texts.
Significance - He expanded China's maritime trade and made China known in the Indian Ocean and around the world, though his descendants ended his naval expeditions.

eunuchs

Castrated males who served the Chinese state. Some were allowed to live inside the Forbidden City in Beijing to serve the Emperor and his family. Since they could have no family of their own, it was assumed that they would serve the emperor with greater devotion. The admiral Zheng He is probably the best known example of this group.
Significance - The Chinese emperors put too much trust into the eunuchs, unintentionally giving them power. The power of the eunuchs contributed to the cause for the decline of the Ming and Qing dynasties.

Kangxi

(1661-1722) Chinese Emperor who was both a scholar and a conqueror. He studied Confucian teachings and sought to apply them through his policies. He organized flood-control and irrigation projects. Taiwan was one of the new territories added to the Qing Empire during his reign.
Significance - He was one of the two most effective emperors of Qing China. He looked after the welfare of his subjects by promoting agriculture and establishing Confucian schools.

kowtow

traditional bow made in the presence of the Chinese emperor. It required three kneelings and nine head knockings.
significance - This practice illustrated the supreme status of the emperor in China as the "Son of Heaven." European diplomats were sometimes reluctant to perform this ritual.

filial piety

the duties of children toward their fathers and the loyalty of subjects toward the emperor. This practice was encouraged by the government to promote peace and stability in Chinese society.
Significance - It was the cornerstone of family values. Children had the obligation to look after their parents' happiness and well-being. A crucial obligation was for children to support their parents in their old age.

Zheng He

He was the admiral who led seven massive maritime expeditions under the Ming emperor Yongle. His journeys took place from 1405 to 1433 and included visits to Southeast Asia, India, Sri Lanka, Arabia, and east Africa. His fleets included as many as 317 vessels and 28,000 men. Some historians contend that he also led journeys to Australia and the Americas but there is little evidence to support their theories.
Significance - He established a Chinese presence in the Indian Ocean. His expeditions indicate the wealth and power of Ming China. They also serve as a contrast to later Chinese policies regarding travel and foreign trade.

"Dream of the Red Chamber"

One of the most popular novels published in China during the Qing Dynasty. It tells the story of cousins deeply in love who could not marry because of their families' wishes. Scholars use this work to shed light on the dynamics of wealthy scholar-gentry families.
Significance - The popularity of this novel and others like it illustrated the desire for entertainment felt by literate merchants. The development of printing technology made it possible to produce books cheaply and in mass quantities so that such novels flooded Chinese cities during the Ming and Qing eras.

Tokugawa Ieyasu

(reigned 1600-1616) United Japan under his leadership as shogun. He established a military government known as the Tokugawa bakufu ("tent government")
Significance - He was able to bring peace and stability to Japan after a century of civil war.
His descendents ruled Japan until 1868.

bushido

This was a code that the samurai lived by in Japan from the twelfth to the nineteenth century. It was also known as "the way of the warrior." It emphasized unquestioning loyalty to one's daimyo. It also called for bravery and devotion to the development of military skills.
Significance - The devotion of the samurai to their lords provided the basis for prolonged conflict between daimyos when there was no shogun. It also served as the basis for the authority of the shoguns after the daimyos was subjugated.

Francis Xavier

A Jesuit who traveled to Japan in 1549 to open a Catholic mission. His efforts and those of other Jesuits were successful in convincing many Japanese to become Christians. However the popularity of Christianity in Japan declined dramatically in the early 1600s.
Significance - The popularity of Christianity generated a backlash from Japanese government officials and moralists seeking to preserve Japanese religious and cultural traditions. Many Japanese Christians were persecuted for their beliefs.

Hongwu

(1368-1398) He founded the Ming dynasty and drove the Mongols out of China. He used mandarins and trusted eunuchs to help him rule.
Significance - His rule restored native rule of China as well as the hallowed place of Confucian thought in Chinese society.

The Forbidden City

This was the imperial palace in Beijing for the Ming and Qing emperors. It had this name because "intact males" other than the emperor were forbidden to live there.
Significance- Surrounded by massive walls, it provided a safe stronghold for royal family It was often dominated by eunuchs who were supposed to serve the emperor and his family. The separation of the emperor from regular Chinese society often meant that the emperor did not know what was really going on in China

queue

This was a braided hairstyle that the Qing emperors required all male subjects to wear.
Significance- This hairstyle illustrated the power of the Qing emperors to remake Chinese society and mandate submission of the Chinese people to the Manchurian conquerors.

Qianlong

(reigned from 1736 - 1795) He was the Emperor of the Qing dynasty who expanded Chinese authority over Vietnam, Burma, and Nepal. He made the empire so wealthy that he occasionally cancelled tax collections
Significance- He brought China into a time of overall peace and prosperity, but weakened the empire by expanding the role of eunuchs in imperial affairs

Civil Service Exam

This was a government exam on Confucian philosophy that was used to determine which men were qualified to serve as government officials (mandarins). It was given predominantly to the sons of wealthy men and took 3 days to complete.
Significance - It filtered out "less qualified" individuals, leaving only the most intelligent men educated in Confucian thought to serve in the government. Mandarin leadership in local Chinese government was a significant factor in the stability and prosperity of Chinese society. Although this examination procedure fell out of use during Mongol rule of China, the Ming dynasty brought it back. The Qing dynasty set up an easier test for Manchurian candidates, but Chinese candidates were required to take the traditional exam.

foot binding

This was a custom that originated during the Song Dynasty where the feet of upper class girls were bound tightly in order to keep their feet small. This practice became more widespread in China during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Some working class girls also had their feet bound in hopes of improving their prospects for marriage into the upper class.
significance- Parents in China bound the feet of their daughters in hopes of enhancing their marriage prospects. This also serves as an example of how women were controlled by men in China. It was considered a sign of wealth and prestige for a man to have a wife who could not work.

Yongle Encyclopedia

This project was sponsored by the Ming Emperor Yongle. The encyclopedia was a large collection of Chinese philosophical, literary, and historical texts that filled almost 23,000 scrolls.
significance- It emphasized Chinese cultural traditions as the basis for the education of Chinese scholars. It helped the educated Chinese become more familiar with their culture. After the rule of the Mongols during the Yuan Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty worked to rebuild respect and knowledge of Chinese culture.

Shogun

This was the title for the Japanese leader who used his control of the military "to protect" the Emperor. He was in effect the military dictator of Japan. Because this position held so much power, the emperors of Japan were figureheads rather than rulers. The Tokugawa family used this position to end a century of civil war when they took over Japan in 1600.
Significance. The Tokugawa rulers forbade Japanese people from going abroad and foreigners from coming to Japan. They were also against Christianity and tried to end it in Japan.

Daimyo

They were powerful territorial lords who ruled most districts of Japan from their hereditary land holdings. Local samurai were required to give absolute obedience and loyalty to their daimyo.
Significance- Each of the roughly 260 daimyo functioned as a near-absolute ruler within his domain. Each of these leaders set up their own private army as well as schools and an independent judiciary. These local leaders were brought under the control by the Tokugawa Shogunate around the year 1600.

Shinto

This came to be recognized as the national religion of Japan. It emphasized the veneration of kami, which were nature spirits connected with each clan. The torii is a symbol generally associated with the Shinto reverence for nature.
Significance - During the eighteenth century, scholars of "native learning" in Japan scorned neo-Confucianism and other beliefs that had not originally developed in Japan. Shinto symbolized an aspect of original Japanese culture during a time when the country was in search of its identity.

Shah Jahan

(1592-1666) He was the Mughal Emperor who constructed the Peacock Throne, and built the Taj Mahal in memory of his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. His reign led to the golden age of Mughal art and architecture.
Significance- His sponsorship of the creation of the Peacock Throne and the Taj Mahal demonstrated the wealth of the Mughal Empire as well as the fundamental importance of Islamic beliefs in the Mughal government.

Osman Bey

The Founder of the Ottoman Empire. He was the chief, bey, of a group of semi-nomadic Turks who migrated to Anatolia in the thirteenth century. Osman and his people sought to become ghazi ("warriors of the faith").
Significance-He established the ruling dynasty of the Ottoman Empire that lasted from 1298 to its dissolution in 1923.

Ghazi

This term was used to describe the Muslim religious warriors who believed themselves to be the sword of God. They believed that it was their duty to rid the world of polytheism and if they died serving Allah, they would live eternally with God.
Significance - They used religion to fuel their successful holy war against the Byzantine Empire.

Devshirme

This was an Ottoman institution, which required the Christian population of the Balkans to supply the sultan with young boys to become slaves. The boys converted to Islam, were taught Turkish, and received special training. Depending on their skill, they would either join the army or the Ottoman government administration. Those who became soldiers were known as Janissaries and were not allowed to marry or have families of their own.
Significance- This practice was a successful way to create Islamic converts and reduce the Christian population under Ottoman control. Sultans relied on the devoted individuals recruited under this policy for administration, expansion, and defense of the Ottoman Empire.

Janissaries

The Ottomans required the Christian population of the Balkans to contribute young boys to become slaves of the sultan. The boys received special training, learned Turkish, and converted to Islam. Those who became solders were known as Janissaries, from the Turkish "yeni cheri" which means "new troops"
Significance- The Janissaries quickly gained a reputation for esprit de corps, loyalty to the sultan, and readiness to employ new military technology. The Janissaries helped to strengthen the Ottoman military forces.

Mehmed II

(reigned 1451-1481) He was the Ottoman ruler who laid the foundations for a tightly centralized, absolute monarchy. He conquered most of Serbia, moved into southern Greece and Albania, eliminated the last Byzantine outpost at Trebizond, captured Genoese ports in the Crimea, and initiated a naval war with Venice in the Mediterranean.
Significance - He captured Constantinople in 1453, renaming it Istanbul and was known as Mehmed the Conqueror

Suleymen the Magnificent

(reigned 1520-1560) He was the sultan who presided over the Ottoman Empire at its peak. During his reign it became a major naval power with fleets in Aegean, Black, Mediterranean, and Red Seas. His fleets also challenged Portuguese dominance in the Indian Ocean. His conquests included Mesopotamia, most of Hungary, the island of Rhodes, and the remainder of Serbia. He laid siege to Vienna but was unable to take the city.
Significance - He vigorously promoted Ottoman expansion, both in southwest Asia and in Europe.

Shah Ismai I

(reigned 1501-1524) He was the founder of the Safavid Dynasty in Persia who seized control of the Iranian plateau and launched expeditions into the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia and central Asia.
Significance - Ismail adopted Twelver Shiism which he forced upon his subjects. This religion held that there had been twelve infallible imams after Muhammad, and that he himself was the twelfth "hidden imam." Some Shiites came to believe that he was an incarnation of Allah.

qizilbash

Turkish followers of Shah Ismail who ruled the Safavid Empire from 1501-1524. They distinguished themselves by wearing a red hat with twelve pleats, in memory of the twelve Shiite imams. qizilbash="red heads"
Significance - They accepted that Ismail was the hidden imam, or the incarnation of Allah himself. Most Muslims believed these ideas were blasphemous. The Ottoman sultan Selim the Grim feared that nomadic Turks in the Ottoman Empire would join this group so he persecuted Shiites in the Ottoman Empire and launched a successful attack on the Safavid Empire.

Twelver Shiism

This was a Muslim belief that there had been twelve infallible imams (religious leaders) after Muhammad. These imams began with Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law Ali. The twelfth "hidden" imam had gone into hiding to escape persecution in 874
Significance - The twelfth imam was supposed to return to take power and spread his true religion. Shiite Muslims subscribe to this belief. Sunni Muslims generally do not

Chladiran

(1514) Key battle of the Ottoman invasion of Safavid territories. The Savafids lost this battle in part because they refused to use any gunpowder weapons, which they believed to be unmanly or unreliable. As a result of their victory, the Ottomans temporarily took over Ismail's capital at Tabriz
Significance - Because Ottoman Empire lacked the resources to completely sack the Safavid Empire, the Safavids were able to regain control of Persia. The two empires remained in conflict for the next two centuries

Shah Abbas the Great

(ruled 1588 -1629) He moved the Safavid capital to Isfahan, encouraged trade with other nations, and increased the use of gunpowder weapons. He reformed the administrative and military institutions of the empire.
Significance--He revitalized the Safavid Empire. His campaigns brought most of the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, and northwest Iran under his rule

Babur "The Tiger"

He was originally Zahir al-Din Muhammad, a Chagatai Turk who claimed descent from both Chinggis Khan and Tamerlane. He conquered much of northern India and perceived himself to be more of a soldier and an adventurer than an empire builder or religious crusader.
Significance- He started the Mughal dynasty in India.

Akbar (not Admiral)

(reigned 1556-1605) He was Babur's grandson who was the real builder of the Mughal Empire. His conquests included Malwa, Gujarat, Bengal, Kabul, Kashmir, and Kandesh.
Significance- He instituted a policy of religious toleration in the Mughul Empire and tried to create a religion that would combine elements of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam.

Aurangzeb

(reigned 1659-1707) The Mughal Empire controlled the most territory under his rule after he pushed his control into southern India.
Significance - He reversed Akbar's policy of religious toleration. He sponsored the destruction of many Hindu temples and the construction of mosques on the sites of these destroyed temples. Because of his religious attitudes and the large territory under his control, rebellions were common during his reign.

Sikhism

This is a syncretic faith that combines elements of Islam and Hinduism. It became especially prominent in the regions of Punjab and Kashmir. Their most sacred site is the Golden Temple of Amritsar.
Significance - Except for brief periods of toleration, the Sikhs have been required to fight against control from Islamic and Hindu powers. Most Sikhs live in India today. Many support the creation of an independent state of Punjab.

jizya

This was a tax imposed on non-Muslims in a Muslim state, in order to compensate the state for the protection given to non-Muslims (dhimmi) who are not permitted to serve in the military
Significance- The dhimmi (protected people) retained their personal freedom, kept their property, practiced their religion, and handled their own legal affairs

Millet

These were autonomous religious communities in the Ottoman empire which retained their own civil laws, traditions, and languages; they also usually assumed social and administrative functions in matters concerning birth, marriage, death, health, and education
Significance- These communities were able to help non-Muslims stay in touch with their culture and religion; the jizya made this possible

Sinan Pasha

(1489-1588), He was an architectural genius who was responsible for the construction of a vast religious complex called the Suleymaniye. This project combined tall, slender minarets with large domed buildings supported by half domes in the style of the Byzantine church Hagia Sofia
Significance - He was able to blend Islamic and Byzantine architectural elements in his building of the Suleymaniye which is one of the most celebrated monuments in Istanbul.

Wahhabi Movement

This is a religious movement started by Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab in Arabia in the 1740s. Their theology treats the Qur'an and Hadith as fundamental texts. They became closely associated with the Saud family in Arabia and denounced the Ottomans as dangerous religious innovators who were unfit to rule.
Significance- They objected to the growing influence of Western European ideas in Islamic lands. Some examples of their reluctance to embrace Western ideas include their protests against the construction of an astronomical observatory in Istanbul and their campaign to shut down the Ottoman printing press.

Hong Xuiquan

Hong Xuiquan - (1800's) He was a village schoolteacher who provided inspiration and leadership for
the Taiping rebellion. After failing to pass the civil service exam and a long illness, he began to study
religion and believed that he had visited heaven during his sickness and claimed to be a younger
brother of Jesus. After the Taiping movement failed to overthrow the Qing Dynasty, he committed
suicide in 1862.
Significance - His Taiping movement favored the equality of women with men and nearly brought the
end of the Qing dynasty in China.

Extraterritoriality

A privilege generally extended to diplomats in a foreign country which holds that
they are not subject to the laws of the host nation.
Significance - This privilege was extended to all foreign nationals in China. Consequently the Chinese
were unable to police any aspect of foreign behavior within their borders. This led to exploitation by
European merchants and resentment of European power by the Chinese.

Joseph Arthur de Gobineau

(1816-1882) A French conservative who was racially prejudiced against
Jews. His most famous work "Essay on the Inequality of Human Races" (1853 - 1855) maintained the
superiority of the Aryan race.
Significance - He showed how the development of nationalism could sometimes inspire racism. His
writings directly influenced the ideas of German Nazi theorists in their development of anti-semitism
in the twentieth century.

Ram Mohun Roy

(1772-1833) An Indian reformer who supported monotheism, and
also argued for more freedom of speech. He attacked the traditional practices of suttee, polygamy,
and the caste system. He supported the creation of schools in India on the British model.
Significance - The reforms he suggested in Hindu practice appear to have been inspired by his study
of Christianity, but he cited ancient Hindu traditions as the basis of his reforms. He believed that
India could learn from the British.

Bloody Sunday

January 22, 1905 A group of unarmed workers marched on the Winter Palace of Tsar Nicholas II demanding a popularly elected assembly. Govt. troops met them and killed over a hundred demonstrators in the streets.

Opium War

(1839-1842) The conflict between Britain and China over the illegal opium trade in China.
British gunboats took control along the Yangzi and Yellow Rivers and quickly overcame the Chinese
military.
Significance - Showed China's military weaknesses against the industrialized European countries and
forced China into unequal treaties with Britain. British interests built the city of Hong Kong in territory
taken from China after this conflict.

Taiping Rebellion

A revolution in Qing China led by Hung Xiuquan which placed heavy social reforms on Chinese culture such as prohibition of slave trade, prostitution, and foot-binding. Taiping beliefs were inspired to some degree by Christian principles.
Significance - Millions of Chinese died during this conflict. The violence and economic dislocation
associated with this event severely weakened the Qing dynasty's hold on power in China.

King Leopold II of Belgium

(1865-1909) - he organized, with the help of H. M. Stanley, the International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of the Congo. As a possession of the Belgian crown,
the Congo was exploited so severely that the Belgian government eventually took this territory away
from the king and made it a Belgian colony.
Significance- His claims in the Congo touched off the scramble for Africa. By 1900 only Ethiopia and
Liberia remained outside the sphere of European imperialism.

Maori

They are people of New Zealand believed to have migrated from the islands of Polynesia. Their
land was seized by British colonists after they were defeated in battle and forced to sign the Treaty of
Waitangi.
Significance- They were one of many groups that was greatly affected by the migration of Europeans
to their land, but still managed to maintain their cultural identity. They also suffered great population
loss because of the diseases that many settlers brought with them.

Sepoys

Natives of India who served in the armies of the British. Originally they served in the private
armies of British merchants from the British East India Company. They later served in the British
colonial army in India as well as other locations in the British Empire and elsewhere during
World War I.
Significance - They staged a bloody revolt in 1857, and which was eventually defeated by the British
in 1858, thanks to superior British technology. In response to this revolt, Britain imposed direct
imperial rule on India.

Maxim

This is the name of a family of inventors and munitions makers. Men of this family
invented the Maxim machine gun, smokeless gunpowder, an airplane, various different sorts of
explosives, and a silencer for explosive weapons.
Significance - This family invented many of the tools of warfare that helped European empires keep
an edge over other countries by employing these new technologies.

Russo- Japanese War

(Feb. 1904 - May 1905) began with a Japanese surprise attack on the Russian
naval squadron at Port Arthur and ended with the destruction of the Russian army.
Significance - This loss showed the weakness of Russia and its army. As a result of this, Austria and
Germany were probably less concerned about a possible conflict with Russia in 1914.

Duma

an elected legislative assembly in Russia created by Tsar Nicholas II as a concession to help
end the Revolt of 1905
Significance - This assembly lacked the power to create or bring down governments, it was merely an
assembly that was set up to make the people think that they had a say in the government.

Treaty of Nanjing

Treaty made at the conclusion of the Opium War between the Chinese and Great Britain made in 1842.
Significance - ceded Hong Kong Island in perpetuity to Britain, opened five Chinese ports to
commerce and residence, compelled the Qing government to extend most-favored nation status to
Britain, and granted extraterritoriality to Britain subjects.

Alexander II

(reign: 1855-1881) ended the Crimean war and turned to reforming Russia. Significant
reforms included the abolition of serfdom in 1861 and the introduction of zemstvos as a means of
introducing limited self-government at the local level.
Significance - His efforts at reform inspired radical terrorist activities in Russia including his own
assassination. Later tsars followed repressive policies partly due to his fate.

Pogroms

Violent attacks on Jewish communities encouraged by government officials in Russia.
Significance - This persecution prompted many Jews to leave Russia. One of the favorite
destinations for Russian Jews was the United States.

Emilio Aguinaldo

Filipino rebel leader who worked with the United States to drive the Spanish out of the Philippines. He felt betrayed by the United States when it took over the Philippines instead of assuring its independence. After Spain sold the Philippines to America, Filipino rebels attacked the Americans. He led the revolt against U.S. occupation.
Significance - the revolts led by Aguinaldo until 1906 showed the longing for native rule in the
Philippines. The conflict claimed 4,200 Americans, 10,000 rebels, and 200,000 natives lives.

Indentured labor migration

After slavery was abolished in many countries in the 1800s, a large
number of laborers were needed to take the place of the slaves. These laborers were provided with
food and free passage but were required to work for their employer for up to seven years with very
little pay. The majority of these workers came from India, but sizable numbers also came from China,
Japan, Java, Africa, and the Pacific islands. They primarily travelled to tropical and subtropical lands
in the Americas, the Caribbean, Africa, and Oceania.
Significance- The indentured labor migrations were able to help maintain economic stability in global
agricultural production and planters were still able to make a good profit despite the end of slavery.

Matthew C. Perry

American Commander of the US naval squadron that came to Edo Bay in 1853 and
threatened the bakufu capital of Edo. Edo later became the city of Tokyo
Significance - He demanded that the shogun open Japan to diplomatic and commercial relations.
Agreement by Japanese government gave the United States commercial rights, deprived the
Japanese government of control over tariffs, and granted foreigners extraterritorial rights.

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