The device of using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning.
The repetition of sounds, especially initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words. ("she sells sea shells")
A direct or indirect reference to something that is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art.
The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage.
A similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them.
The word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun.
A terse statement of known authorship which expresses a general truth or a moral principle.
A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction, such as liberty or love. The effect may add familiarity or emotional intensity.
The emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author's choice of objects that are described.
A grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb. Independent, or main, ones express a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. Dependent, or subordinate, cannot stand alone as a sentence and must be accompanied by an independent one.
A figure of speech based on inverted parallelism. It is a rhetorical figure in which two clauses are related to each another through a reversal of terms." (". . . ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country")
Slang or informality in speech or writing. Not generally acceptable for formal writing, becasue it gives a work a conversational, familiar tone. In writing it includes local or regional dialects.
A fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects. It usually displays intellectual cleverness due to the unusual comparison being made.
The nonliteral, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning. It may involve ideas, emotions, or attitudes.
The strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion, attitude, or color.
Related to style, it refers to the writer's word choices, especially with regard to their correctness, clearness, or effectiveness. For the AP exam, you should be able to describe an author's word choice (for example, formal or informal, ornate or plain) and understand the ways it can complement the author's purpose. It, combined with syntax, figurative language, literary devices, etc., creates an author's style.
From the Greek, it literally means "teaching." These works have the primary aim of teaching or instructing, especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles.
From the Greek for "good speech," they are a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for a generally unpleasant word or concept. They may be used to adhere to standards of social or political correctness or to add humor or ironic understatement. (example: "earthly remains" rather than "corpse")
A comparison developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work.
Writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid.
figure of speech
A device used to produce figurative language. Many compare dissimilar things. Examples include apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, metonomy, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, synecdoche, and understatement.
This term describes the traditions for each genre. These conventions help to define each genre; for example they differentiate between and essay and journalistic writing.
The major category into which a literary work fits. The basic divisions of literature are prose, poetry, and drama.
This term literally means "sermon," but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice.
A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement. Often a serious effect results; however, a serious effect is also possible.
The sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions. On a physical level, it employs terms related to the five senses: visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, or olfactory.
A form of understatement that intensifies an idea by expressing a thought by denying its opposite. (It wasn't my best moment. It was not a pretty picture.)
A Greek term for understatement or belittling; a rehetorical figure by which something is referred to in terms of less importance than it really deserves. It describes something that is very impressive with simplicity. (Mercutio's mortal wound--a "scratch")