Unit 09 - Applied Genetics

25 terms by meadowsbioteacher 

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alleles

different forms of a gene

carrier

person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does not have the trait

co-dominance

both alleles for a gene are fully expressed in the heterozygous condition (such as strips or patches of two colors)

cross-fertilization

fusion of sperm and egg derived from two different individuals

dihybrid cross

cross applied to two characteristics with four alleles

dominant allele

trait that is expressed in a heterozygous genotype

F1 generation

offspring of the P generation; first filial generation

F2 generation

offspring of the F1 generation; second filial generation

genetics

branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms

genotype

organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations

hemophilia

sex-linked recessive disorder defined by the absence of one or more proteins required for blood clotting

heterozygous

having two different alleles for a trait; hybrid

homozygous

having two identical alleles for a trait; pure or true-breeding

hybrid

offspring of crosses between parents with different traits

inbreeding

continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics

incomplete dominance

creates a blended phenotype; one allele is not completely dominant over the other

monohybrid cross

cross applied to a single characteristic with two alleles

P generation

parental generation, the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross

pedigree

family tree representing the occurrence or heritable traits in parents and offspring across generations

phenotype

physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its gentic make up.

Punnett square

chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross

recessive allele

trait that is hidden in a heterozygous genotype

self-fertilize

fusion of sperm and egg produced by the same individual organism

sex-linked gene

gene located on the X or Y chromosome

testcross

real life cross between an organism whose genotype for a dominant trait is unknown and an organism that is homozygous recessive for that trait

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