Orchestra 2011-2012 Sem. 2 Final

99 terms by lunaraein 

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pp

pianissimo; very soft

p

piano; soft

mp

mezzo piano; medium soft

mf

mezzo forte; medium loud

f

forte; loud

ff

fortissimo; very loud

crescendo, cres.

get louder

diminuendo, dim.

get softer

a tempo

return to original tempo

accelerando

get faster

adagio

slow

allargando

slowing down and becoming broader

allegro

cheerful; fast

allegretto

a tempo in between allegro and andante; "a little lively"

andante

walking tempo; moderately

assai

much; as in "allegro assai" - quite fast

brio

vigor, spirit; usually in "con brio"

con moto

with motion

grave

very slow and solemn

largo

broad, very slow

lento

slow

l'istesso tempo

at the same rate of speed

maestosso

majestic, dignified; with lofty breadth

meno

less; not so

molto

very; much

moderato

moderate tempo

mosso

moved; moving; movement

non

no; not

presto

very fast

poco

little

poco a poco

little by little

rallentando, rall.

growing slower and slower

ritardando, rit.

growing slower and slower

stringendo

gradually faster; pressing forward

stringendo e cresc.

gradually faster and louder

vivace

very lively

vivo

lively

accent

stress placed on certain notes, indicated by a symbol >

arco

with the bow

col legno

with the wood

divisi; div.

divided

glissando

sliding from one pitch to the other

legato

smooth, connected

marcato

marked, accented; with each note emphasized

martele

"hammered" bowing, with a forceful, sudeen release

pizzicato

played by plucking the strings with the fingers

sordino

mute

spiccato

bouncing lightly off the string

staccato

short, detached strokes

tremolo

short rapidly repeated strokes on one note

unison, unis.

play in unison again

Antonio Vivaldi

1678-1741
Concerto in D major
Concerto Grosso in D minor - 1711
The Four Seasons - 1723
Each season = sonnet.
Baroque

Johann S. Bach

1685-1750
"Break Forth, O Beauteous Heavenly Light" -1734, part of Christmas Oratorio
Baroque

George F. Handel

1685-1759
"Messiah" - 24 days - 1741
"Water Music" - Air: F major - 1717 (King George I, River Thames)

Baroque

Ludwig van Beethoven

1770-1827
Started losing hearing in 1788
"Allegretto" - Symphony No. 7 in A major - 1813
Classical

Wolfgang A. Mozart

1756-1791
Symphony No. 40 in G minor - 1788
Classical

Felix Mendelssohn

1809-1847
"Italian Symphony" - "An Italian Elegy" - 1833
Romantic

Bedrich Smetana

1824-1884
"The Moldau" - 1874-1879
Romantic

Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov

1844-1908
Procession of the Nobles - 1892
Romantic

capo

the beginning; the top; "da capo" from the beginning

coda

a tail; ex. a closing section of a movement

cut time

also known as alla breve; a meter w/ 2 beats per measure w/ the half note getting the beat

D.C. al Fine

go back to the beginning, play until the Fine

D.S. al Coda

go back to the sign, play until coda sign, proceed to coda

D.S. al Fine

go back to the sign, play until Fine

Dolce

sweet, gentle

Dolcissimo

very sweet

Enharmonic

2 notes same pitch but "spelled" diff; i.e. D# and E flat

Fine

the end; often in phrases like "al fine" (to the end)

Leggero, Leggiero

lightly, delicately

Pesante

heavy, weighty

Piu

more; for ex. "piu f" - more forte

segno

sign; "dal segno" - from the sign

sempre

always; in the same manner throughout

simile, sim.

in a similar way; continue in the same manner

solo

alone; one player/singer

soli

featuring more than one player or singer; multiple soloists; can feature entire section

sostenuto

sustained, lengthened

subito

suddenly

subito p

suddenly soft

symphony

an orchestral composition with from 3-5 mvts.; or group of musicians themselves

tenuto, ten.

"held"' a tone so marked is to be held for entire note value

tranquillo

play in a relaxed manner; tranquilly, calmly

tutti

all together; used after solo passage to indicate when everyone joins in again

Stars

Sharps and flats (see key signature)

sTars

Time signature

stArs

Accidentals

staRs

Rhythm

starS

Signs and symbols (tempo, repeats, expression, bowing, dynamic, etc.)

Baroque

1600-1750
Bach, Handel, Vivaldi
Corelli, Telemann

Classical

1750-1830
Mozart, Beethoven
Hadyn

Romantic

1815-1910
Liszt, Tchaikovsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, Berlioz, Brahms, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Rachmaninoff, Smetana

Nationalism

1815-1910 (parallel to Romantic)
Dvorak

Impressionism

late 19th-20th century
Ravel, Debussy

Modern

1910-present
Menotti
Holst, Prokofieff, Shostakovich, Stravinsky

Major Key Signatures

Order of sharps: FCGDAEB

Minor Key Signatures

Order of flats: BEADGCF

Modes

7 modes
Ionian, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian, and Locrian
D Dorian - "A Modal Festival

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