One of the best artists of the renaissance but was also a poet and an architect. He studied in Florence with the Medici family. His focus was on the individual, glorified in the human body. He is best known for his sculptures La Pieta, The David, and his paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine chapel.
Leonardo da Vinci
Known as The Renaissance Man. He was an amazing scientist, inventor, and artist. He focused on the individual and the beauty in everyday life. He is best known for his paintings The Last Supper and The Mona Lisa
One of the best known playwrights of all time. He is best known for his sonnets, plays, and his essays which all showed a wide range of human emotion.
A great philosopher and humanist who wrote The Praise of Folly which highlighted the Catholic Church (his ideas eventually led to the Protestant Reformation)
Created the 95 theses. He was the fuel that started the Protestant Reformation. His main belief in Lutheranism was that salvation was earned through faith and faith alone.
Holy Roman emperor who tried to revive the medieval empire
Created Calvinism. He branched his teachings off of Luther. He believed in predestination and that salvation was earned through a good work ethic and living a righteous life.
Man who is famous for arousing the ideas of Martin Luther with his ridiculous claims for the sale of indulgences.
He created the church of England and Anglicanism when his wife could not give him a son and the pope wouldn't allow his divorce. He created the church to link religion and government all under one power.
One of the smartest politicians who turned the 30 year's war from a religious war to a political war.
The ruling Austrian Family during most of the 1600-1800's
A man who attacked the Catholic church and translated Wycliffe's works into Czech. He was put to trial and burned at the stake for his ideas.
A man who attacked the corruptions and abuses of the church. He exposed indulgences, purgatory, and unbiblical heresies. He was put to trial for his ideas escaped to Germany.
King Henry VII's daughter and the Queen of England. She was religiously tolerant and defeated the Spanish armada.
Foundation founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534 sent out to preach the Catholic doctrine. They preached, administered hospitals and orphanages around the world and converted third world countries to Christianity.
He invented the printing press which made it a lot easier to print and spread new ideas. It also made printing much easier, less time consuming, and less expensive
Vasco de Gama
A Portuguese sailor who discovered a way around the Cape of Good Hope to India
A Spanish sailor who discovered the new world.
A Spanish sailor who discovered the Aztec empire, overthrew it and claimed it for Spain
A Spanish sailor who discovered and conquered the Incan Empire
Sailed for Spain. He was the first to expedition around the world but died in the Philippines. He proved the size of the Earth and that is was round. He also named the Pacific ocean
A French sailor who was looking for a route to the Pacific and discovered Canada.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Founded many navigation schools to teach people how to sail throughout Europe
An English sailor who was the first explorer to successfully make it around the world
The military commander in Japan. Considering the emperor was a figure head he basically controlled Japan.
Discovered the heliocentric theory and made the discovery that the Earth spins on its axis daily and makes a full revolution around the sun yearly. His ideas led to the accomplishments of Newton, Galileo, and Kepler.
Discovered the 3 laws of planetary motion. He also helped prove the theory of heliocentricity and discovered the effect of the moon on the tides
He invented the telescope. He discovered craters on the moon, proving that the moon was not smooth. He was also the first to see the different phases of Venus
Discovered gravity. He also stated that an object at rest will stay at rest, the more force the more acceleration, and every action has an equal and opposite reaction
Discovered that blood is circulated through the body by the heart and also the first to suggest that animals reproduce via fertilization and egg and sperm.
The French Monarch during the age of absolutism. He was known as the sun king. He ruled with unlimited power and was firm supporter of divine right of kings.
Frederick the Great
The Prussian Monarch during the age of absolutism. He transformed Prussia's military power acquiring many new regions and was known as an enlightened thinker because he supportive of the arts and completely reformed Prussia's government.
Peter the Great
The Russian Monarch during the age of absolutism. He created a new image for Russia, he gained lands in western Russia and became a major European power. He "westernized" Russia. He brought new knowledge and technology to Russia.
The leader of the Commonwealth following the victory in the English Civil War. He took over the government and formed the Protectorate
Charles I of England
The only English monarch to ever be executed. He ruled during the English civil war and was greatly criticized because he truly thought he was divinely chosen.
Charles II of England
The son of Charles I he was an abusive ruler that believed in the divine right of kings. He ends up dissolving parliament.
William and Mary
Put on the throne after King James II was thrown off. They were devout protestants and were forced to sign the English Bill of Rights limiting their power.
Considered the father of English Moral and Political Philosophy. He thought people were bad and the only way to control them was to have an absolute monarchy. He also believed in the a social contract which means people know that they are bad so they give their power to a ruler. He is best known for his book Leviathan.
Considered one of the first modern philosophers. He combined rationalism with inductive reasoning and the scientific method to form his ideas. He gave the western world its first modern theory of human nature
Was a political philosopher in the 18th century he is most famous for his book, The Spirit of the Laws, in which he supported the separation of powers. The separation of powers is the spread of the power in government to create checks and balances in the government.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
considered to be one of the most influential thinkers of the enlightenment he is well known for his amazing writing. He wrote things ranging from social and political theory to musical criticism and even an opera. The architects of the American and French Revolution were inspired by his work. He also encouraged the rise of Romanticism
Considered as one of the best French writers and philosophers of the Enlightenment. He wrote Candide. He is also well known for his strides against social injustice and religious intolerance.
One of the brightest thinkers in American government. He used enlightenment ideas to help create the amazing government that America has today.
Johann Sebastian Bach
A German composer considered to be the greatest of the baroque era. Also one of the most accomplished composers in the history of the west.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
The most accomplished European composer of the 18th century, a prodigy, he began composing at age 5 and wrote his first opera at age 12. He is recognized as the greatest composer of the age.
Considered as one of the greatest French painters of all time, he headlined the Romantic Movement. He was the inspiration for van Gogh and Gauguin.
A famous writer most famous for his book, Don Quixote, which was a story of his trials as a knight. It received praise for exemplifying medieval chivalry.
The monarch that was on the throne that inspired the French Revolution. He was a weak monarch and created biased taxes and was awful at managing the economy. He was executed during the French Revolution.
The leader of the French Revolution. He inspired people to revolt with his excellent speaking but was eventually executed because he had become to extreme.
One of the greatest leaders the world has ever seen who took power in France by giving people the rights they had won in the French Revolution. He eventually almost all of Europe but met his defeat when he was forced to retreat in the Russian Winter losing almost all of the 600,000 men he took with him.
Men sent by the Spanish to monitor and rule their colonies
Latin-American born Spaniards
People of mixed Indian and Spanish blood
Father Miguel de Hidalgo
A priest who lead the Mexican revolution
Leader who led revolutionary efforts in all of northern South America; Bolivia is named after him
Leader of the Haitian revolution
Wrote the Monroe doctrine keeping European influence out of the western hemisphere.