the political and social system that was around in France before the French Revolution
one of the three social classes in France before the French Revolution
consisting of the clergy
consisting of the nobility
consisting of the rest of the population
King of France before Revolution-spend extravagantly and helped American Revolution-government in debt
spent very extravagantly; disliked by French population
an assembly of reps from all 3 estates of France; called by Louis XVI
a French congress established by reps of the 3rd Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms for the good of the French people
Tennis Court Oath
a pledge made by members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they promised to keep meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
a wave of senseless panic that swept through the countryside of France after the Storming of the Bastille in 1789
a French congress that could create laws and approve declarations of war; established by the Constitution of 1791
someone leaving native country for political reasons; ex. nobles and others who left France during peasant uprisings of the French Revolution
in the French Revolution, a radical group of Parisian wage earners and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end to food shortages
member of a radical political organization who called for the death of all those who kept supporting the king
a machine used to behead people; used for humane execution in the French Revolution and beyond
Jacobin leader who set out to build a "republic of virtue" by wiping out every trace of France's past and ruled France as a virtual dictator
Reign of Terror
mid 1793-mid 1794; Maximilien Robespierre ruled France as practically a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
a sudden seizure of political power in a country
a vote where a nation's people can approve or reject a proposal
a government-run public school in France
a formal agreement, especially between the pope and a government, having to do with Church affairs
a comprehensive and uniform system of laws for France called by Napoleon; eliminated many injustices
Battle of Trafalgar
1805-naval battle where British flee under command of Horatio Nelson defeated Napoleon's forces
using troops or ships to stop commercial traffic from entering or leaving a city or region
Napoleon's policy of stopping trade between Great Britain and continental Europe in hopes of destroying Great Britain's economy; fails
a member of a loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his or her own country/region
1808-1813; Spanish rebels with help from Great Britain, fought to drive Napoleon's troops out of Spain
the process of burning crops and killing livestock during wars so the enemy cannot live off land
Battle in Belgium that ended Napoleon's 100 Days and permanently exiled him to St. Helena
1815; brief time when Napoleon made last bid for power; deposed French king and was made emperor again
Congress of Vienna
1814-1815; European leaders worked to make long-lasting peace and security after defeat of Napoleon
Klemens von Metternich
foreign minister of Austria and most influential of 5 "great powers" at Congress of Vienna
Balance of Power
political situation where no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat of others
the hereditary right of a monarch to rule/taking borders back to where they used to be
Alliance between Russia, Austria, and Prussia after Congress of Vienna
Concert of Europe
series of alliances in Europe in 19th century to prevent outbreak of revolutions-devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich
What percent of the population did the 1st Estate represent?
What percent of the population did the 2nd Estate represent?
What percent of the population did the 3rd Estate represent?
What estate paid the most taxes?
a visual used to convey political ideas as propaganda in a satirical way; especially about the 3 classes
Declaration of Independence
document that influenced the French Revolution by saying that "men are born free and remain free and equal in right," such as "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression"
Church, Church, elected, state
The National Assembly took over _________ lands and declared that ________ officials were to be __________ and paid as ______ officials
opposed monarchy and wanted sweeping, extreme changes in government;
some changes in government
limited monarchy and wanted few changes in government; status quo
Other European monarchs were afraid of the French Revolution because they did not want ___________ __________ to occur in their own countries
When the Austrians and Prussians invaded, the _____________ were alarmed and ___________ many of their own people and suffered many defeats
death, king, Louis XVI
The Jacobins called for the _______ of all those who continued to support the _______ and eventually tried, convicted, and executed __________ for treason
republic of virtue
What did Robespierre build to strengthen France, make it anew, and protect the Revolution from enemies
changed the calendar and street names to make France completely secular
What kind of government did Robespierre believe in?
execution of Robespierre
What brought the Reign of Terror to an end
How did Napoleon rise to such great ranks in France?
concordat, Pope Pius VIII
Napoleon signed a ______________ with ___________
Who put the crown on Napoleon: the Pope or himself?
Where was Napoleon defeated by the British navy?
What country did Napoleon make a mistake invading?
new ruler of France after Napoleon
peace and stability
What was the main goal for the Congress of the Vienna?
What did the French Revolution give to other groups who wanted to revolt?
What was Haiti called when it was a French colony?
What was the ethnicity of the majority of the people in San Dominique?
leader of the HaitianRevolution who was a former slave
What happened to the French troops that were sent to San Dominique?
Which country helped San Dominique in their rebellion?
What did Robespierre abolish in all French colonies in 1794?
What was established on January 1, 1804?
What was the only successful slave rebellion?
Spain or Portuguese born people in Latin America-aristocratic-hand money, land, laws, and were in charge; temporary dwellers
Europeans born in Latin America; aristocratic land owners, had money, and positions in the government and army; want to be in charge but not
Social group in Latin America that lead revolts
mix of European and native person in Latin America
mix of African and native person in Latin America
slave in Latin America
priest; leader of 1st rebellion in Mexico
Grito de Delores
Document from Hidalgo that meant, "We want independence"
Who got frightened by the success of Hidalgo and started supporting the Spanish government instead of him?
Jose Maria Morelos
took over for Hidalgo in Mexico and declared independence in 1813 but was defeated and executed in 1815
What happened in Spain in 1820 that resulted in the king almost being deposed?
Mexican army general who built a successful political and military coalition that was able to march into Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively ending the Mexican War of Independence; becomes emperor of Mexico but is overthrown because he is a tyrant
leads army against Spain in Northern South America in attempt to overthrow Spanish control of governments in Latin America; very successful in Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Panama, Ecuador,etc; gained followers from multiple social groups
created by Bolívar combining Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama, northern Peru and northwest Brazil; very short lived
live near port in Argentina; see what's happening in Spain and want to use it to revolt against government down there; believe they have self-government because the Spanish government is so bad
Jose de San Martin
meets with Bolívar and discusses in 1822 in Ecuador the fate of the Revolution in South America; liberates South America
Spanish, slavery, military dictatorships
The Latin American countries removed any remaining ___________ officials, abolished __________, and eventually devolved into ____________ ___________ (which they are are today)
most important Portuguese colony
moves, king, Pedro, independence
Brazil's imperial family _______ to Rio de Janerio when Napoleon invaded; After the Revolution in Portugal, the ______ in Brazil went back to Portugal; leaves son _________ in Brazil since he won't come back to Portugal-begged by Brazilians to get _____________ from Portugal-works!!
poor economy, Enlightenment, American Revolution
3 long term causes of the French Revolution
individual; wanted change; anti-absolutism; wanted democracy/Republicanism
In 1821, the Greeks revolted against the
Was the Greek revolt a success?
Who supported the Greek Revolution?
In 1848, almost every European country had some sort of _________
A movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual; emphasized national heroes and cultural pride; does NOT emphasize established ideas
Camillo di Cavour
expanded Piedmont-Sardinia and unified Italy
writes a gothic horror story-Frankenstein
unification of Italy and Germany used
Otto von Bismarch violated his country's
famous romanticism composer
creates nation-states, tore apart empires, and was opposed by conservatives
The 1848 uprisings led to the resignation of
Victor Emmanuel II
Who is the king of Sardinia?
France, Great Britain, Ottoman Empire, Piedmont-Sardinia, Russia
__________, ____________, _____________, and ______________ fight in a war against __________ called the Crimean War
Russia wants access to the
Camillo di Cavour
New Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia appointed by Victor Emmanuel II
Piedmont-Sardinia gains new territory for
Cavour goads __________ to declare a war on Sardinia because its alliance with _________ is defensive
In Southern Italy in Sicily, is a nationalist with an army called the "Red Shirts"
These two people unify their forces in order to unify Italy
emperor of Prussia
tough, practical politics
wealthy, German landowner
collection of states created during the Congress of Vienna to enclose France
strongest German State
Emperor of Prussia
Otto von Bismarck
Prime Minister of Prussia who knows how to get stuff done himself
1864: Prussia allies with Austria to declare war on
1866: Prussia warring with __________ in the Seven Weeks War
Southern territories of Prussia are ___________ but combine with the North because of nationalism
War where Bismarck gains support of Southern territories of Prussia and kicks France's butt
New country unified on January 18, 1871 that explodes into a powerhouse
movement in art and ideas that focused on nature and the thoughts and feelings of individuals
movement in art that tried to show life as it really was
style of art using light and light-filled colors to produce an "impression"
movement against Enlightenment
Mary Shelley, William Wordsworth, Beethoven, Delacroix, Fredrich, Goya
Charles Dickens, Emile Zola
Monet, Pisarro, Degas, Manet, van Gogh