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Chapter 15 - Body mechanics and Patient Mobility All chapter Key Terms in addition to medical terminology and relative information.

abduction

movement of an extremity away from the midline of the body

adduction

movement of an extremity toward the midline of the body

alignment

relationship of various body parts to each other

base of support

area on which an object rests; a stance with feet slightly apart

body mechanics

the field of physiology that studies muscular actions and the functions of muscles in maintaining the posture of the body

compartment syndrome

pathologic condition caused by progressive development of arterial compression and reduced blood supply to an extremity.

contracture

abnormal shortening of a muscle

dorsal (supine)

lying flat on the back

dorsal recumbrent

supine position with patient lying on back, head, and shoulder with extremities moderately flexed

dorsiflexion

bending or flexing backward as in upward bending of the fingers, wrist, foot, or toes

extension

movements allowed by certain joints of the skeleton that increases the angle between two adjoining bones

Fowler's

posture assumed by patient when head of bed is raised 35 - 60 degrees

genupectoral

knee-chest position; patient kneels so that weight of body is supported by knees and chest

hyperextension

position of maximum extension; extreme or abnormal stretching

immobility

the inability to move around freely

joint

any one of the connections between bones

lithotomy

patient lies supine with hips and knees flexed and thighs abducted and rotated externally

mobility

a persons ability to move around freely in his or her environment

orthopneic

the posture assumed by the patient sitting up in bed at 90-degree angle

physical disuse syndrome

a state in which an individual is at risk for deterioration of body systems as the result of prescribed or unavoidable inactivity

pronation

palm of the hand turned down

prone

lying face down in horizontal position

range-of-motion

any body action involving the muscles and joints in natural directional movements

semi-Fowler's

posture assumed by patient with head of bed is raised approximately 30 degrees

Sims'

position in which patient lies on side with knee and thigh drawn upward toward chest

supination

kind of rotation that allows the palm of the hand to turn up

Trendeleburg

patients head is low and body and legs are on inclined plane

passive assisted ROM

when it is necessary in assisting the patient with ROM

active assisted ROM

when the patient is able to perform ROM with little or no assistance from the nurse

flexion

movement of certain joints that decreases the angle between two adjoining bones

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