Chapter 9: The Late Middle Ages Review Guide

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100 Years War

Began in May 1337 and ended in October 1453. Between the French and the English. Finally France won. It was started by Edward III of England to claim the French throne. It brought about new styles of warfare.

Estates General

A representative council of townspeople and nobles. Formed in 1355 in France.

English Long Bow

Much more advanced than French, as said by Jensen "Could shoot through a 4-inch thick oak door", not very costly, very destructive, could take out French calvary

Battle of Crecy

August 26, 1346. Very big and important battle, as held by historians

Battle of Sluys

June 23, 1340. Resulted in the destruction of most of the French's fleet.

Jacquerie

Bloody rebellions that were led by peasants and occurred in 1358. Resulted because French privledged class forced peasants to pay high taxes and repair property without compensation.

John Ball and Wat Tyler

England's version of the Jacquerie. Led by John Ball, a secular priest, and Wat Tyler, a journeyman. Series of revolts by peasants and artisans.

Henry V

Gained military experience fighting groups who fought against his father, ruled from 1413-1422. Succeeded by an infant son, named through the Treaty of Troyes the heir apparent to the French throne.

Treaty of Troyes

* The Treaty of Troyes was an agreement that Henry V of England and his heirs would inherit the throne of France upon the death of King Charles VI of France.
* Forms the backdrop of the latter phase of the Hundred Years' War, in which various English Kings tried to establish their claims to the French throne

Joan of Arc

A peasant from Dromrémy, France. Presented herself to Charles VII in March 1419, declaring the King of Heaven had called her to deliver the besieged Orléans from the English. Eventually was deemed heretical and was burned at the stake after winning major (and important) military battles for the French.

Black Death (Bubonic Plague)

Probably introduced by seaborne rats from Black Sea areas and followed the trade routes from Asia into Europe. Swept through Europe very quickly. Europe lost as much as 2/5 of the population to the Black Death.

Decameron

literary work by Boccaccio which was composed of 100 vulgar tales told by three men and seven women in a country retreat from the plague that ravaged Florence in 1348; both a stringing social commentary (sexual/economic misconduct) and a sympathetic look at human behavior

Flagellants

Religious fanatics that would beat themselves in ritual penance until they bled, believing that divine intervention would...well...intervene and cure them of the disease.

Peasants Revolt

Basically the Jacquerie and the revolts led by John Ball and Wat Tyler

Statute of Laborers

Document passed by English Parliament to attempt to limit wages to preplague levels and forbid the mobility of peasants. Enacted under King Edward III in 1351

Rota Romana

The papacy's own law court, which tightened and centralized the church's legal proceedings

Pope Boniface VIII

Reigned from 1294-1303, opposed the taxation of the clergy by the kings of France and England and issued one of the strongest declarations of papal authority over rulers, the Unam Sanctum.

Clericis Laicos

Written by Pope Boniface VIII to King Philip the Fair in 1296 saying that kings did not have the right to tax the laity without getting special permission from the Pope

Unam Sanctum

A bull issued by Boniface VIII in 1302, which said the power of secular authorities, is subordinate to the spiritual power held by the heirs of St. Peter. "Every human creature is to be subject of the Roman Pontif."

William of Ockham

Pamphleteer who wrote lasting tracts for the royal cause, and was excommunicated by Pope John XXII in 1328.

Marsilius of Padua and Defender of Peace

In his Defender of Peace, Marsilius of Padua stressed the independent origins and autonomy of secular government.

Lollards of Hussites

Lollards preached in the vernacular, disseminated translations of Holy Scripture, and championed clerical poverty. John Huss

Avignon Papacy/Babylonian Captivity

The Avignon papacy was a period from 1309-1377 in which 7 popes resided in Avignon, France. Clement V expanded papal taxes, and Clement VI sold indulgences, which were pardons for unrepented sins. Clement V, a Frenchman, was named as pope in 1309. Clement declined to move to Rome, remaining in France, and then moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 67 years. This absence from Rome is sometimes referred to as the "Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy"

John XXII

Reigned from 1316-1334 and was the most powerful Avignon pope. Tried to restore papal independence and to return to Italy.

The "Great Schism"

A split within the Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417. Two men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope.

Conciliarists

Conciliarists defined the church as the whole body of the faithful, of which the elected head, the pope, was only one part.

Council of Pisa

1409-1410. On the basis of the arguments of the conciliarists, cardinals representing both popes convened a council on their own authority in Pisa in 1409, deposed of both the Roman and Avignon popes, and elected a new pope, Alexander V.

Council of Constance

1414-1417. An ecumenical council recognized by the Roman Catholic Church. Helped to end the Great Schism. The council's main purpose was to end the Papal schism which had resulted from the confusion following the Avignon Papacy

Four Articles of Prague

1) Requested the laity the eurcharist with cup as well as bread, 2) free itinerant preaching, 3) The exclusion of the clergy from holding secular offices and owning preorty, 4) and punishment of clergy who commit mortal sins

The Golden Horde

Tribute-paying segments of the Mongol Empire, which included the steppe region of what is now southern Russia and had its capital at Sarai, which is on the lower Volga.

Ivan the Great

Was a Grand Prince of Moscow and "Grand Prince of all Rus". Sometimes referred to as the "gatherer of the Russian lands", he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde over the Rus, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. He was one of the longest-reigning Russian rulers in history.

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