A political system in which the citizens of a region elect representatives to run the government.
A class of powerful landowners in ancient rome who controlled the government and society.
Farmers or workers, who made up a large part of the population in ancient Rome.
The assembly place of an ancient Roman city where people met, where the Senate met, where speeches were made, and where gossip was exchanged and people went shopping.
A written political system.
A body of 300 legislators who controlled finances, foreign relations, reviewed proposed laws, and advised magistrates.
The chief executives elected to run the government in Ancient Rome who were elected for one year and were chief executives and commanders of the army.
A political leader holding unlimited power.
Brothers (Tiberius and Gaius) who tried to give equality and rights to financially desperate plebians, but were seen as a threat to the Senate, and were killed by mobs.
A military leader who, in 107 BCE increased social unrest and led to the changing of the republic to an empire by taking away the property restrictions for the army, causing poor people to join and armies to become private forces devoted to the general who could then use this support as a political tool.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
A general who became consul in 88 BCE. In response to Marius defying Roman custom by trying to prevent him from taking military command, he marched on Rome with his army, becoming dictator, and killing those who opposed him. Although he believed he had preserved the power of the Senate, this man really just paved the way for Rome to become an empire rather than a republic.
A rule of three men
The first triumvirate
Gnaeus Pompey, Licinius Crassus, and Julius Caesar
The second triumvirate
Marc Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus
Part of the second Triumvirate, originally known as Octavian, Augustus defeated Marc Anthony and brought prosperity and peace to Rome and the Roman Empire.
From 27 BCE-180 CE, a time period in the Roman Empire when the Good Emperors ruled and a stable government, a strong legal system, large trade networks, and peace all characterized the Roman Empire.
A country home
The site of chariot races and various other forms of entertainment
The father who was the head of the family and controlled all affairs
Priests who specialized in reading the future in flight patterns of birds and color and arrangement of animal entrails
A Greek physician who wrote several volumes that summarized all the medical knowledge of his day
Compiled other's knowledge and theorized that the earth was the center of the universe
Man-made channels used to collect water and transport it to the city.
The language of Rome
Law based on a written code of laws which many modern-day legal systems have their roots in.
A religion based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.
A Judaic belief in a savior sent from G-d who would one day come to Earth and bring peace.
Jesus of Nazareth
(1 CE-30) A first-century Jewish teacher and prophet; he founded Christianity and taught about kindness and love of G-d. His teachings spread through the Roman Empire and, eventually, the rest of the world.
A small group of followers, especially known=Jesus's 12 Disciples who spread his teachings after he died.
Jesus's closest disciples, (12) who were the earliest Christian missionaries (also applies to people who work to spread Christianity) the first apostles traveled widely, teaching about Jesus's message. For the most part, they only taught in Jewish communities.
People exalted for dying for their faith.
One of 12 Disciples believed Gentiles should be able to experience Christianity, too. Helped make Christianity a broader religion and founded many doctrines that replaced Jewish traditions like keeping Kosher. He spread the influence of Christianity through E. Mediterranean and wrote letters to the churches he founded there, which later became part of the New Testament.
At the time, a secret ceremony held to remember Jesus's last supper, where people ate bread and wine; the great-grandfather of the modern church service.
Official in the early Christian Church. Oversaw church affairs in cities and had authority over all priests.
The descendants of Peter, the alleged founder of the Roman Catholic Church. Because of this, these people claimed that they had the keys to heaven and that bishops should acknowledge their authority as the head of the entire church.
A correlation between the lessening of the value of a currency and a dramatic rise in prices.
One of the last emperors who took power in 284 CE. To slow the snowballing decline of the empire, he changed it to an absolute monarchy with everything controlled by the government and a very strict social hierarchy. He gave the army most of the attention and money.
The leader of the Huns, a an equestrian tribe from Modern-day Mongolia who were fierce warriors.
The visigoth king who sacked Rome in 410 CE
The first barbarian king of Italy who took power in 476 CE after the fall of Western Rome
A Roman statesman who was known for his selfless devotion to the Roman Republic in times of crisis and giving up the reins when the crisis was over (the ideal dictator of the republic)
A triangular region formed at the mouth of a river by deposits of silt
Rocky stretches in a river merked by rapid currents or waterfalls
(3100 BCE) The first pharaoh of Egypt; he is credited with uniting Upper and Lower Egypt and is said to have founded the city of Memphis, the capital of unified Egypt.
Ruler of ancient Egypt
A government ruled by religious leaders who claim G-d's authority
A highly structured organization, often governmental, managed by officials.
(Died 1468 BCE) Queen of ancient Egypt; she took the throne in the place of her stepson, Thutmose III, and during her reign, focused on temple-building projects and trade
Ramses the Great
(Died 1237 BCE) Pharaoh of Egypt; he lead an army against Hittite invaders of Egypt. He ruled Egypt with extravagance and built more temples and monuments than any other Egyptian pharaoh.
Tall, thin pillars with pyramid-shaped tops, often with hieroglyphs carved into them and were like sundials to tell time.
The process of preserving the body with chemicals (such as epsom salts) after death
A form of ancient writing in which picture symbols represent sounds
A paper-like material made by ancient Egyptians from the stem of the reedy papyrus plant, which grows in the Nile River delta
A granite stone found in 1799 that bears an inscription in hieroglyphics, demotic characters, and Greek; gave the first clue to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphics.
The second king of the dead after Anubis after he was killed by his brother, Set (or Seth) and was restored to life by his sister/wife Isis. In art, he was portrayed as a green-skinned mummy
Sister and wife of Osiris. She was worshipped as the goddess of nature and protector of women and was usually drawn with a throne on her head.
The son of Osiris and Isis, the god of the sky. Pharohs were thought to be human forms of this god, who was usually depicted with a falcon's head.
The first judge of the dead and protector of mummies and cemeteries. Images of this god show him with the head of a jackal.
(751-716 BCE) King of ancient Kush; he led the Kushites north into Egypt, conquering all of Egypt and making himself pharaoh.
To melt or fuse metal in order to seperate the metallic components.
(ruled 1792-1750 BCE) King of Babylonia; he was a brilliant military leader who brought all of Mesopotamia into the Babylonian Empire. He is known for his uniform code of 282 laws, the earliest known set of written laws.
A group of semi-nomadic people who migrated from southern Russia to the Indian subcontinent around 1700 BCE
(630-562 BCE) Chadlean king of Babylon from 605 to 562 BCE; he rebuilt Babylon into a beautiful city noted for its famed Hanging Gardens.
A monotheistic religion originating with the Israelites, tracing its origins to Abraham, and having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Hebrew Scriptures and the Talmud.
The first five books of the Hebrew Bible, the most sacred texts of the Jewish faith
A binding agreement (especially known for the agreement made between G-d and the Hebrew people)
According to the Bible, the originator of the Jewish line of descent; according to the Qu'ran, the ancestor of the Arabs; he held a deep devotion to and a great trust in the will of G-d.
An ancestral "father" of Judaism
(1500s-1400s BCE) Hebrew prophet and lawgiver; according to the Bible, he led the Hebrew people out of Egypt and back to Canaan in the Exodus. According to the Bible, it was during this journey that he recieved the Ten Commandments from G-d.
The escape of the Hebrews from Egypt
the dispersal of the Jews from their homeland in Palestine during the 2,600 years that followed the destruction of the Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem in 586 BC by the Chadleans.
The belief in one god
Cyrus the Great
King of Persia and founder of the Persian Empire; he defeated the Median army and united the Persians and Medians under his rule.
Darius the First
King of Persia from 522 to 486 BCE; he reorganized and strengthened the Persian Empire by reforming the army and the government
Governors in Ancient Persia appointed by Darius I to govern a region, called a satrapy, in the emperor's name
(519-465 BCE) King of Persia; his armies invaded Greece but were eventually defeated by the Greeks
(628-551 BCE) Religious teacher and prophet of ancient Persia; he founded a religion known as Zoroastrianism based on the ideas of dualism and that people have free will and can act as they choose
The belief that the world is controlled by two opposing forces, good and evil
The region that lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Southwest Asia