Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
Mann Act of 1910
federal crime to transport women across state lines for "immoral purposes"
Women's Christian Temperance Union
This organization was dedicated to the idea of the 18th Amendment - the Amendment that banned the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcohol.
U.S. organization working for prohibition of the sale of alcoholic liquors. Founded in 1893 as the Ohio Anti-Saloon League at Oberlin, Ohio, by representatives of temperance societies and evangelical Protestant churches, it came to wield great political influence.
Muller v. Oregon
1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health
a friend of the court opinion offered by Louis Brandeis, in the Supreme Court case Muller v. Oregon (1908), which spoke about inherent differences between men and women in the workplace.
National Consumers League
formed in the 1890's under the leadership of Florence Kelly, attempted to mobilize the power of women as consumers to force retailers and manufacturing to improve wages and working conditions.
Thomas L. Johnson
City-leader reformer who advocated change in policy to improve social welfare for city residents
Robert La Follette
Progressive Wisconsin governor who attacked machine politics and pressured the state legislature to require each party to hold a direct primary
fought for railroad regulation in California helped to break the dominant grip of the Southern Pacific Railroad on California politics in 1910
killed president McKinley in 1901. He was an anarchist
was President Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program formed upon three basic ideas: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection. Thus, it aimed at helping middle class citizens and involved attacking plutocracy and bad trusts while at the same time protecting business from the most extreme demands of organized labor.
is a 1903 United States federal law that amended the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. The Elkins Act authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission to impose heavy fines on railroads that offered rebates, and upon the shippers that accepted these rebates. The railroad companies were not permitted to offer rebates. Railroad corporations, their officers and employees were all made liable for discriminatory practices.
Department of Commerce and Labor
was a short-lived Cabinet department of the United States government, which was concerned with Business.
It was created on February 14, 1903. It was subsequently renamed the Department of Commerce on March 4, 1913, and its bureaus and agencies specializing in labor were transferred to the new Department of Labor.
Journalist who exposed corruption and other problems of the late 1800s and early 1900s
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Meat Inspection Act
Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption.
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America.
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Great White Fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
A bill that added hundreds of higher tariff revisions. Signed by Taft which went against his campaign promises and upset the progressives
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries
Progressive/Bull Moose Party
This political party was formed by T. Roosevelt in an attempt to advance progressive ideas and unseat President W.H. Taft in the election of 1912. After Taft won the Republican party's nomination, Roosevelt ran on the Progressive party ticket.
The New Freedom
omprises the campaign speeches and promises of Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential campaign. They called for less government, but in practice as president he added new controls such as the Federal Reserve System and the Clayton Antitrust Act. More generally the "New Freedom" is associated with Wilson's first term as president.
Pushed through Congress by Woodrow Wilson, this 1913 tariff reduced average tariff duties by almost 15% and established a graduated income tax
Federal Reserve Act 1913
This act created a central banking system, consisting of twelve regional banks governed by the Federal reserve Board. It was an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet flexible currency. The Board it created still plays a vital role in the American economy today.
Federal Trade Commission
an independent agency of the United States fedeal government that maintains fair and free competition
Restricted ou of state transport of goods made by kids under 14. 1st federal laws that restricted child labor. Prohibited transport of goods produced by child labor (later struck down by supreme ct. )
Political parties formed in the unity of an international organization with a set beliefs inspired by the writings of Karl Marx. They desired economic and political philosophy favoring public or government control of property and income. Their goal was to end the capitalist system, distribute wealth more equally, and nationalize American industries
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
nickname for the Industrial Workers of the World, they engaged in industrial sabotage due to their poor working conditions
Leader of the Industrial Workers of the World who promoted the concept of one all-inclusive union whose credo would be the promotion of socialism.
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.
National American Woman Suffrage Association
(NAWSA) Organization dedicated to gaining the right to vote for women, militant suffragist organization founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
Carrie Chapman Catt
Spoke powerfully in favor of suffrage, worked as a school principal and a reporter, became head of the National American Woman Suffrage, an inspiried speaker and a brilliant organizer. Devised a detailed battle plan for fighting the war of suffrage.
Alien Land Law
1913; prohibited Japanese and other Asian aliens from owning property in the California
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
Plessy v. Ferguson 1896
Legalized segregation in publicly owned facilities on the basis of "separate but equal."
in 1905 Dubois started this movement at Niagara Falls, and four years later joined with white progressives sympathetic to their cause to form NAACP, the new organization later led to the drive for equal rights.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize