Marco Polo's stories
Tales that he told either to Europeans about Asia and the Middle East or that he told to Kublai Kahn and his court about Europe.
Marco Polo in China
He went to the court of Kublai Kahn, initiated a lot of cross-cultural exchange.
Cotton in West Africa
A big trading good.
Origins of the bubonic plague
First started in Asia probably around the stepped regions, then spread over to Europe through merchants, and was further transmitted by rats and fleas.
Results of the bubonic plague
Worst disaster in history. 30-60% of Europeans died. It caused flagellants to form and also great massacres of minorities.
Powerful states in Europe
Spain controlled a lot, Britain was rising up, some Muslims controlled straight.
Reconquista in Spain
A period during which the Spanish kicked Muslims out of Spain, most notably the Moors.
Renaissance begins where
Italy in the 14th century.
Renaissance painting's key features
The most important is perspective, and also movement toward realism. The development of painting light, shadow, and color is also important.
A Chinese Muslim maritime explorer who conducted voyages all around Asia and the Middle East. He created many of the first oceanic maps that China had.
Prince Henry of Portugal
Was the third child of the king of Portugal, and is responsible for the early development of European maritime trade and exploration with other continents.
Reasons for European exploration Trade
They wanted to find quicker and more efficient routes to get cheap goods for the lowest prices.
A tool that plots the position of the sun, moon, planets, and stars. It's used to determine position, altitude, and local time. It was primarily used by astronomers, navigators, and astrologers.
Converts the power of wind into energy. Is used for milling grain, pumping water, and other engineering uses.
When a government controls trade with other colonies and ports. Usually, the government monopolizes all of its own ports and trade routes so that it controls everything going in and out
Vasco da Gama
A Portuguese explorer, most famous for being the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India. He was the Viceroy of Portuguese India for a short time.
Portuguese in Asia
Had several trading posts in Asia, but their influence in the region had declined by the end of the 16th century.
The biggest trade city in the Philippines. Was/ is densely populated.
A famous Muslim explorer from the 13th centaury who spent about 30 years exploring most of the known world.
Russia in Siberia
Russia conquered it in the 16th through 19th centuries.
Seven Year's War
A war in the 17th century which involved the worlds greatest powers in an effort to control the New World.
Migrants to the New World
Came mostly from European companies, unless they where slaves. Came for a variety of reason, such as a better life, economic oppurtunities, or to increase personal power.
A triangular sail which was very important to exploration back then.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Divided the newly discovered lands outside of Europe between Spain and Portugal.
The of reforming and changing something.
Martin Luther & the 95 Theses
A German priest who started the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed that freedom form sin could be bought by money. The 95 Theses where a list of problems he identified with the Catholic Church.
John Calvin & The Institutes of the Christian Religion
John Calvin was a priest in the Protestant Reformation. Founded Calvinism, which says that bad people are destined to be bad and go to hell and that good people will be good and go to heaven, and that you can't change your fate. The Institutes of the Christian Religion is the book he wrote to get people to join the Protestant Church.
The actual movement away from the Catholic Church and the found of the Protestant one.
A king who desired a male offspring, but couldn't get one. He had six marriages, but sense the Catholic Church didn't allow divorce, he broke England off from the Church and made England almost entirely Protestant. Is most famous for his marriage to Anne Boleyn.