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secondary radiation

radiation produced by the photoelectric effect is called

fog, reduced contrast, reduced recorded detail

scattered radiation affects the radiographic image by causing

kVp, field size

which of the following factors will affect the quantity of scattered radiation fog on a radiograph

use a grid or Bucky

the most effective method of reducing scattered radiation fog on a radiograph is to

the relationship between the height of the lead strips and the width of the spaces between them

the effectiveness of a grid is determined by the grid ratio, which is

clean up scattered radiation more effectively

as compared with an 8:1 ratio grid, a 12:1 ratio grid will

grid cutoff

on a radiograph, the appearance of decreased density on the side of the image is most likely caused by

bucky grid

a moving grid may be part of a radiographic table or upright unit and is called a

visibility of grid lines

the frequency of a stationary grid affects the

10 to 12 cm

as general rule, a grid or Bucky should be used when the part thickness is greater than

lateral angulation, SID out of the focal range, position of the x-ray beam off center to one side of the grid

which of the following would result in grid cutoff

using an air gap, using a smaller field size

which of the following will reduce scatter radiation

compton effect

in the diagnostic range of kvp settings (50 to 100 kVp) the majority of scattered radiation will be from which interaction with matter

the photoelectric effect

total absorption of an x-ray photon by the atom of the body part it is termed

back toward the x-ray tube

the majority of photons that are scattered will scatter in which direction

+/- 2% of the SID

the standard control limit for the collimator on the x-ray tube is that it must be maintained within a range of

true

higher kVp results in more scattered radiation fog

true

the effectiveness of a grid is determined by grid ratio

false

high-frequency or stationary grids move during the exposure

false

a grid with strips that are parallel to each other is called a crosshatch grid

false

an air gap with increased OID increases the intensity of scattered radiation at the image receptor (IR)

false

a grid ratio of 12:1 would be used for mobile radiography

true

the number of lead strips per inch is called the grid frequency

true

increase tissue thickness equals increased interactions equals increased scatter equals increased fog

true

the patient is the prinicipal source of scattered radiation in radiography

true

a grid is placed between the patient and the IR

false

compton scatter travels in a forward direction only

true

scatter radiation fog reduces the visibility of detail

true

the standard control limit for the x-ray tube's beam alignment is that the tube must be mounted so that the beam is within 1 degree of perpendicular

false

the collimator and the beam alignment must be checked using two separate quality control tests

photoelectric effect interactions

which type of radiation interaction produces scattered radiation that is characteristic of the subject irradiated

thickness of subject, size of field

what two factors affect the volume of the tissue irradiated

increased, high energy able to escape subject without being reabsorbed

when the kvp is increased, will the quantity of secondary radiation fog be increased or decreased, why

patient

what is the principal source of scattered radiation that causes fog in radiography

12:1

state the grid ratio that is typical of a table bucky

103 lines per inch with ration of 8:1 or 12:1

what is the usual minimum frequency for a stationary grid in an upright grid cabinet

visible grid lines

what is the typical radiographic appearance of grid cutoff caused by using an SID that is outside the grid's focal range

lateral projection of the cervical spine

for what radiographic examination is an air gap commonly used instead of a grid

increased image quality because of decrease in distortion

how might the image of a vertebra on a spot film differ from the image of the same vertebra as part of a 35 x 43 cm radiograph of the spine

if part measures 10 to 12 cm or greater refer to technique chart

how would you determine when to use a grid

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