ions where charge is greater than 0
ions where charge is less than 0
nucleons are protons and neutrons
collective name for both protons and neutrons
equation for the mass number of an atom (A)
isotopes are atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons
atom of an element with a different number of neutrons
first quantum number (n)
energy shell number that is related to the size and energy of an orbital
a 3D region around the nucleus in which the electron is most likely to be found
n is proportional to the electrons energy and average distance from the nucleus
What does an increased n-value for the first quantum number indicate?
second quantum number (l)
number that pertains to both the subshell energy and the angular momentum
Equation for the possible values of l, the second quantum number?
for the s-subshell, l=0
What is the angular momentum for the s-subshell?
What is the angular momentum for the p-subshell?
What is the angular momentum for the d-subshell?
What is the angular momentum for the f-subshell?
third quantum number (m₁)
number for how orbitals are oriented that increases by odd numbers
s=1, p=3, d=5, f=7
Number of orbitals for each block?
fourth quantum number (m₂)
the spin number, which designates the electrons internal magnetism
electrons fill orbitals from low to high energy
What does the Aufbau principle state?
electrons will occupy available orbitals singly before pairing up
What does Hund's rule state?
no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of quantum numbers
What is the Pauli exclusion principle?
diamagnetic atoms have all of their electrons spin paired
an atom that has all of its electrons spin-paired and thus has all of its occupied subshells filled
it will be repelled by the magnetic field
How will a diamagnetic atom respond to an external magnetic field?
an atom whose electrons are not spin paired
they will be attracted to the magnetic field
How will paramagnetic atoms respond to a magnetic field?
Equation relating energy and frequency
state when electrons behave according to Aufbau principle
endothermic process where energy is absorbed to promote the state of an electron
Bohr atom model
model of an atom where electrons orbit the nucleus in a circular path, with electrons further from the nucleus having greater amounts of energy
an atom that contains only one electron
exothermic process where electron drops to a lower energy level releasing light in the UV/vis spectrum only
strong nuclear force
force that holds protons and neutrons in the nucleus
unstable nuclei that undergo a transformation to make them more stable
emission of an alpha particle, which is equivalent to a He nucleus that reduces the Z-number by 2 and A-number by 4
alpha particels are unable to travel through the skin
Do alpha particles travel through skin?
beta minus decay
decay that occurs when a nucleus has too many neutrons, and it converts one into a proton emitting an electron. Thus, product increases Z-number by 1
Beta plus decay
when an unstable nucleus converts a proton to a neutron, emitting a positron. This decreases the Z-number by 1
beta decay where an electron from closest shell is removed to convert a proton into a neutron
radioactive decay where gamma photons are emitted to return an atom in excited state to ground state
half life is the time it takes for one-half of the sample to decay
the time it takes for one-half of some sample of the substance to decay. The decay is exponential
NOTE: shorter (blank) means quicker decay
difference in mass from individual nucleons to the formation of the nucleus due to the release of energy
mass defect=(total mass of individual nucleons)-(mass of nucleus)
equation for mass defect?
Equation for mass energy equivalence
fraction=(1/2)ⁿ, where n is the number of half lives
Formula for calculating fraction of isotope left after n number of half lives?
alpha decay b/c it is the least penetrating
Which form of decay is safest for exposure (outside the body)?
beta decay b/c the particles are smaller and can ionize once inside
Which form of decay is safest for contamination (inside the body)?
a longer half life b/c decay will be slower and fewer damaging particles are present
Is a shorter or longer half life safer?
fission is splitting of a larger nuclide
splitting a larger nuclide
combining smaller nuclides
nuclear rxns (fusions and fission) are always exothermic
Are nuclear rxns endo or exothermic?
the breaking of bonds is always endothermic
Is the breaking of bonds endothermic or exothermic?
^H=binding energy broken-binding energy formed
Equation to approximate energy changes of a reaction?
increasing n is increasing energy of electrons and decreasing the gap btw orbitals
What does increasing n (principle quantum number) indicate?
energy will be greater for atoms that are closest. they are closest on the exterior
Will energy be greater for orbitals that are closer or father apart? Where would the highest energy orbitals be found?
light, heat, and collisions (sound)
What are the causes of excitation?
n-1 since d is one less than s
What is the principal quantum number for transition metals?
n-2 since f is 2 less than s
What is the principal quantum number for the f block?
yes, since d is one value less than s and p, electrons will first be lost from p, then s, and lastly d
Will s and p electrons always be moved before d?
s², p⁶, d¹⁰, f¹⁴
What are the 4 final electron configurations of diamagnetic atoms?
half or completely filled subshells are exceptionally stable, and will thus have higher ionization energies
Half or completely filled subshell rule (HCFS)?
No, s block can only be half or completely filled
Does HCFS rule apply to the s block?
No, they serve the purpose of identification
Does spectra or spectroscopy separate anything?
Can photons ever have negative energy?
difference of excited and lower energy, or excited-lower energy
Solving for the energy emitted by a photon uses what equation?
relates to position and momentum. states that if one can know the momentum, then one cannot know the position, and vice versa. increased mass means increased momentum, but this does nothing in terms of posiiton
What does the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle relate to and how is it affected by mass?