the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
Bills of Exchange
A bill of exchange or "draft" is a written order by the drawer to the drawee to pay money to the payee. A common type of bill of exchange is the cheque (check in American English), defined as a bill of exchange drawn on a banker and payable on demand. Bills of exchange are used primarily in international trade, and are written orders by one person to his bank to pay the bearer a specific sum
Dutch East India Company
A company founded by the Dutch in the early 17th century to establish and direct trade throughout Asia. Richer and more powerful than England's company, they drove out the English and Established dominance over the region. It ended up going bankrupt and being bought out by the British
a dramatic rise in prices (inflation). A major problem in europe in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, causes economic collapse in Spain
Isabella of Castile
Along with Ferdinand of Aragon, monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; marriage to Ferdinand created united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World.
Ferdinand of Aragon
Husband of Isabella of Cstile and monarch of largest Catholic kingdom and united Spain and responsible for funding for the exploration of the New World
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America.
King of Spain, 1556 - 1598; married to Queen Mary I of England;he was the most powerful monarch in Europe until 1588; controlled Spain, the Netherlands, the Spanish colonies in the New World, Portugal, Brazil, parts of Africa, parts of India, and the East Indies.
Palace built by Philip II in Madrid to demonstrate his power. Was the Spanish counterpart to Versailles.
Battle of Lepanto
The Battle of Lepanto took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of Catholic maritime states, decisively defeated the main fleet of the Ottoman Empire in five hours of fighting on the northern edge of the Gulf of Patras, off western Greece
The Victory of the Holy League prevented the Mediterranean Sea from becoming an uncontested highway for Muslim forces, protected Italy from a major Ottoman invasion, and prevented the Ottomans from advancing further into the southern flank of Europe. Lepanto was the last major naval battle in the Mediterranean fought entirely between galleys, and has been assigned great symbolic importance.
English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
Book of Common Prayer
The Book of Common Prayer is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, "Anglican realignment It contained Morning Prayer, Evening Prayer, the Litany, and Holy Communion and also the occasional services in full: the orders for Baptism, Confirmation, Marriage, 'prayers to be said with the sick' and a Funeral service. It also set out in full the "propers"
the beliefs and practices characteristic of Puritans (most of whom were Calvinists who wished to purify the Church of England of its Catholic aspects)
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
Sir Thomas Gresham
English merchant and financier who enhanced the reputation of English business and merchants to allow them to operate on credit (1519-1579)
17th century laws in England that bound out vagrants and abandoned children as indentured servants to masters
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
This was the revolt by the Netherland against the Spanish in order to create their independent state
Duke of Alba (Alva)
1) AKA Iron Duke
2) established Council of Troubles AKA Blood council
3) put Dutch heretics on trial, so Dutch revolted
Council of Blood
created by the Duke of Alba, Spanish governor of the Netherlands, in 1567. The job of this Council was to try cases of suspected treason committed by Protestant rebels against the Catholic government imposed by Spain.
elite planters that operated the government for their private gain that Bacon was fighting against
The main character in Miguel de Cervantes' book about the changing times in the early 1600's. He was a man who did not like how the Middle Ages were ending and people were becoming more materialistic, so he set of to become a knight and bring back chivalry to Spain
Treaty of Munster
A subset of the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648 that officially recognized Dutch independence from Spanish rule.
Sir Thomas More
English statesman who opposed Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon and was imprisoned and beheaded
Short Essay - Choose 2 of 4
Act of Supremacy
English Act that Parliament that states the monarch has absoulute supreme authority and head of the Church of England