use misleading or unrelated evidence to support a conclusion, introduce evidence that is unrelated or misleading to support a conclusion. Ex: "I know I get bad grades, but I do all my chores."
one event will lead to a catastrophic chain of events.
compares minor problems with much more serious crimes (or vice versa).
"These seat belt laws are fascist"
Arguments set up and often dismantle easily refutable arguments in order to misrepresent an opponent's argument in order to defeat him or her.
A:We need to regulate access to handguns.
B: My opponent believes that we should ignore the rights guaranteed to us as citizens of the US by the Constitution. Unlike my opponent, I am a firm believer in the Constitution, and a proponent of freedom)
drawing conclusions based on insufficient or unrepresentative evidence
Faulty Causality (Post Hoc)
the assumption that because one event or action follows another, the first necessarily caused the second
Example: A year after the release of the violent video game Annihilator, incidents of school violence tripled. This was surely not a coincidence
a statement that does not follow logically from evidence
a statement that is not literally false but that cleverly avoids an unpleasant truth
Begging the Question
the writer restates claim in a different way; circular
" His lies are evident from the untruthful nature of his statements"