Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic and immune system?
b) Maintaining water homeostasis in the body
What is the major difference between lymph and interstitial fluid?
Lack of resistance is also known as:
Describe how lymphatic capillaries are one-way only vessels.
Ans: The ends of the endothelial cells in the wall of the lymphatic capillary overlap. When the pressure is higher in the interstitial fluid than in the lymph, the cells seprate slightly allowing interstitial fluid into the vessel. When pressure is greater inside, the cells are tightly packed, not allowing the lymph to cross back into the interstitial fluid.
What causes lymph from the small intestines to appear white?
Which of the following is not considered an organ of the immune system?
The left subclavian vein recieves lymph from
d) Thoracic duct
The lymph from the right foot empties into the
d) Thoracic duct
The skeletal muscle and respiratory pumps are used in
e) Lymphatic, Immune and Cardiovascular systems
Describe how edema can form.
Ans: Edema can form by obstruction to lymph flow or increased capillary blood pressure causing interstitial fluid to form faster than it is reabsorbed.
Which of the below produces the hormone that promotes maturation of T cells?
In the thymus, where is it speculated that T cells die.
d) Hasall's corpuscles
This protion of the lymph node does not contain any lymphatic nodules.
a) Inner cortex
Which of the following is a function of the spleen?
a) Removes worn out blood cells
Which of theses does NOT provide a physical or chemical barrier?
Describe the barriers used in innate defense.
Ans: Barriers used by the innate defense include epidermis, mucus, hairs, cilia, lacrimal apparatus, saliva, urnie, vaginal secretions, sebum, perspiration and gastric juices.
Which of theses provides a non-specific cellular disease resistance mechanism?
These anti-microbial substances will diffuse to uninfected cells and reduce production of viral proteins.
These anti-microbial substances promote cytolysis, phagocytosis and inflammation.
c) Complement proteins
These are mainly used to kill infectious microbes and tumor cells.
a) Natural killer cells
Which of the following is NOT a sign of inflammation?
d) Mucus production
Which of the following intensifies the effect of interferons and promotes the rate of repair?
Which of the below do NOT induce vasodilation and permeability (increased fluid flow) to an infection site.
When B and T cells are fully developed and mature, they are known to be
This induces production of a specific antibody.
This can only stimulate an immune response if attached to a large carrier molecule.
Which of the following is responsible for diversity in the immune system?
d) MHC and antigen receptors
This class of cells includes macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells.
a) Antigen presenting cells
This can only become activated when bound to a foreign antigen and simultaneously recieving a co stimulate.
a) B Cell
These display CD 4 in their membrane and are associated with MHC class II molecules.
b) Helper T Cells
T Cells secrete this toxin that is used to fragment DNA.
List the five actions of antibodies.
Ans: Antibodies can act as a neutralizing agent, they can immobilize bacteria, agglutinate and precipitate the antigen, activate the compement and enhance phagoytosis.
This class of antibodies is mainly found in sweat, tears, breast milk and GI secretions.
This will lead to inflammation, enhancement of phagocytosis and bursting of microbes.
d) Classical and Alternative complement systems
This action makes microbes more susceptible to phagocytosis.
This is a self-responsive cell that is inactive.
d) Anergy cell
This is characterized by the inability of the immune system to protect the body from a pathogen.
a) immunodeficiency diseases
An acute allergic response can lead to:
c) anaphylactic shock
A natural exposure to an infectious agent leads to:
b) Active immunity
This class of antibodies is produced after an initial exposure to antigens.
Of the following whcih is considered the body's second major defense.
Lymphocytes can recognize
b) Foreign cells
In B cell receptors, the light/heavy variable regions are located
b) Tips of the molecules
What is the most polymorphic molecule in the immune system?
The primary response will peak how many days after exposure?
Which type of immunity defends against any type of invader?
This is the ability of an antigen to react specifically with the antibodies or cells it has provoked.
This is a small hormone that can stimulate or inhibit many normal cell functions.