Be audience centered
know your audiences thoughts, motives, interests,values and attitudes so you know how to get their attention.
Select appropriate topics
be true to yourself, but make the topic appropriate to your audience
know as much as possible about your subject, audience, occasion, etc.
How to get to know your audience
Stop, think and brainstorm. Interview. Survey, Research
Use appropriate verbal and non verbal behavior
based upon who your audience is, be appropriate.
to external and internal noise
how to select a topic
identify the general purpose of your speech, create an idea bank, select your topic.
How to narrow your topic
identify the specific purpose, identify the central idea, evaluate your central idea, construct a working outline.
Locating materials for support
Internet, library, interviews
Types of support material
facts, definitions, testimony, examples, statistics
A primary source
is the original source of information, not second party.
someone who is repeating what they heard, not someone who witnessed or experienced it.
textbooks, journals periodicals. written for specialists in their academic or professional fields
written for general readers. Usually magazines or popular culture data bases. Are more for entertainment.
You need more than your own knowledge for a speech..need to research
Evaluate supporting materials for
accuracy, currency, completeness, trustworthiness and suitability.
Use supporting materials
to clarify unfamiliar or abstract information, to create and hold your audiences attention, to help the audience remember
Different ways to use your material
Directly, using comparison, contrast, analogy,
Parts of an outline
introduction, body, conclusion, source page
Types of outlines
working, speaking, formal
Why use an outline?
ensure main points relate to central idea, select appropriate organizational pattern, make sure sub points relate, evenly distrubute supporting materials, formulate links, design a speech you audience can follow, create a permanent record.
Formal or preparation outline
typed, double spaced, formatted in a specific way and handed in prior to giving the speech.
chronological, topical, spatial, causal, order of intensity, comparative, problem-solution, refutation,
choose strategy by
considering your general purpose, your topic and your audience
purpose of an introduction
capture your audience attention, state thesis, build credibility, preview your main points.
facts and statistics, quotes, stories, humor, questions, reference to recent events.
Conclusion should do the following
signal ending, summarize, elicit a response, create an impact one last time.
common faults of intro's and conclusions
apologizing, gimmicks, prefacing you introduction, introducing new material in the conclusionl.