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epidermis

outermost layer of skin

keratin

horny, or cornified, layer composed of protein. It is contained in the hair, skin, and nails

melanin

responsible for skin color

dermis

inner layer of skin (also called the true skin)

sudoriferous (sweat) glands

tiny, coiled, tublular structures that emerge through pores on the skin's surface and secrete sweat

sebaceous glands

secrete sebum (oil) into the hair follicles where the hair shafts pass through the dermis

hair

composed of compressed, keratinized cells

nails

originate in the epidermis. The white area at the base of the nail is called the lunula, or moon

abrasion

scraping away of the skin by mechanical process or injury

abscess

localized collection of pus

acne

inflammatory disease of the skin involving the sebaceous glands and hair follicles

actinic keratosis

a precancerous skin condition of horny tissue formation that results from excessive exposure to sunlight. It may evolve into a squamous cell carcinoma.

albinism

congenital hereditary condition characterized by partial or total lack of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes

basal cell carcinoma (BBC)

epithelial tumor arising from the epidermis. It seldom metastasizes but invades local tissue. Common in individuals who have had excessive sun exposure.

candidiasis

an infection of the skin, mouth (also called thrush), or vagina caused by the yeast-type fungus Candida albicans

carbuncle

skin infection composed of a cluster of boils caused by staphylococcal bacteria

cellulitis

inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by infection, leading to redness, swelling, and fever

contusion

injury with no break in the skin, characterized by pain, swelling, and discoloration (also called a bruise)

eczema

noninfectious, inflammatory skin disease characterized by redness, blisters, scabs, and itching

fissure

slit or cracklike sore in the skin

furuncle

painful skin node caused by staphylococcal bacteria in a hair follicle (also called a boil)

gangrene

death of tissue caused by loss of blood supply followed by bacterial invasion (a form of necrosis)

herpes

inflammatory skin disease caused by herpes virus characterized by small blisters in clusters

impetigo

superficial skin infection caused by pustules and caused by either staphylococci or streptococci

infection

the invasion of pathogens in body tissue. Can be caused by bacteria, fungus, parasite, or virus

Kaposi sarcoma

a cancerous condition starting as purple or brown papules on the lower extremities that spreads through the skin to the lymph nodes and internal organs. Frequently seen with AIDS

laceration

torn, ragged-edged wound

lesion

any visible change in tissue resulting from injury or disease. It is a broad term that includes sores, wounds, ulcers, and tumors

MRSA infection

invasion of body tissue by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a strain of common bacteria that has developed resistance to penicillin and other antibiotics. It can produce skin and soft tissue infections and sometimes bloodstream infections and pneumonia, which can be fatal if not treated

pediculosis

invasion into the skin and hair by lice

psoriasis

chronic skin condition producing red lesions covered with silvery scales

rosacea

chronic disorder of the skin that produces erythema, papules, pustules, and broken blood vessels, usually occurring on the central area of the face in people older than 30 years (also called acne rosacea)

scabies

skin infection caused by the itch mite, characterized by papule eruptions also accompanied by severe itching

scleroderma

a disease characterized by chronic hardening (induration) of the connective tissue of the skin and other body organs

squamous cell carcinoma (SqCCA)

a malignant growth that develops from scalelike epithelial tissue. Unlike basal cell carcinoma, there is a significant potential for metastasis. The most frequent cause is chronic exposure to sunlight

systemic lupus erthematosus (SLE)

a chronic inflammatory disease involving the skin joints, kidneys, and nervous system. This autoimmune disease is characterized by periods of remission and exacerbations. It also may affect other organs

tinea

fungal infection of the skin. The fungi may infect keratin of the skin, hair, and nails. (also known as ringworm or athlete's foot)

urticaria

an itching eruption composed of wheals of varying size and shape, which usually resolves in a short period of time. Often idiopathic but sometimes associated with infections and with allergic reactions to food, medicine, or other agents. Other causes include internal disease, physical stimuli, and genetic disorders (also called hives)

vitiligo

white patches on the skin caused by the destruction of melanocytes associated with autoimmune disorders

cauterization

destruction of tissue with a hot or cold instrument, electric current, or caustic substance (also called cautery)

cryosurgery

destruction of tissue by using extreme cold, often by using liquid nitrogen

debridement

removal of contaminated or dead tissue and foreign matter from an open wound

dermabrasion

procedure to remove skin scars with abrasive material, such as sandpaper

excision

removal by cutting

incision

surgical cut or wound produced by a sharp instrument

incision and drainage

surgical cut made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from lesion, wound, or cavity

laser surgery

procedure using an instrument that emits a high-powered beam of light used to cut, burn, vaporize, or destroy tissue

Mohs surgery

technique of microscopically controlled serial excisions of skin cancers

suturing

to stitch edges of a wound surgically

alopecia

loss of hair

bacteria (s. bacterium)

single-celled microorganisms that reproduce by cell division and may cause infection by invading body tissue

cicatrix

scar

cyst

a closed sac containing fluid or semisolid material

cytomegalovirus

a herpes-type virus that usually causes disease when the immune system is compromised

diaphoresis

profuse sweating

ecchymosis (pl. ecchymoses)

escape of blood into the skin (or mucous membrane), causing a small, flat, purple, or blue discoloration, as may occur when blood is withdrawn by a needle and syringe from an arm vein

edema

puffy swelling of tissue from the accumulation of fluid

erythema

redness

fungus (pl. fungi)

organism that feeds by absorbing organic molecules from its surroundings and may cause infection by invading body tissue; single-celled fungi (yeast) reproduce by budding; multicelled fungi (mold) reproduce by spore formation

induration

abnormal hard spot(s)

jaundice

condition characterized by a yellow tinge to the skin (also called xanthoderma)

keloid

overgrowth of scar tissue

leukoplakia

condition characterized by white spots or patches on mucous membrane which may be precancerous

macule

flat, colored spot on the skin

nevus

circumscribed malformation of the skin, usually brown, black, or flesh colored. A congenital nevus is present at birth and is referred to as a birthmark (also called a mole)

nodule

a small, knotlike mass that can be felt by touch

pallor

paleness

papule

small, solid skin elevation

petechia (pl. petechiae)

a pinpoint skin hemorrhage

pressure ulcer (decub)

erosion of the skin caused by prolonged pressure, often occurring in bedridden patients (also called decubitus ulcer or bed sore)

pruritus

severe itching

purpura

small hemorrhages in the skin (or mucous membrane), giving a purple-red discoloration; associated with blood disorders or vascular abnormalities

pustule

elevation of the skin containing pus

ulcer

erosion of the skin or mucous membrane

verruca

circumscribed cutaneous elevation caused by a virus (also called a wart)

vesicle

small elevation of the epidermis containing liquid (also called a blister)

virus

minute microorganism, much smaller than bacterium, characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the ability to replicate only within living host cells; may cause infection by invading body tissue

wheal

transitory, itchy elevation of the skin with a white center and a red surrounding area; a wheal is an individual urticaria (hive) lesion

BCC

basal cell carcinoma

CMV

cytomegalovirus

CA-MRSA

community-associate MRSA

decub

pressure ulcer

derm

dermatology

HA-MRSA

healthcare-associated MRSA

I&D

intradermal

MRSA

methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus

SLE

systemic lupus erythematosus

SqCCA

squamous cell carcinoma

staph

staphylococcus

subcut

subcutaneous

TD

transdermal

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