Microbiology 201

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Chapter 1, 2, 3 Questions for review

Which of the following microorganisms are not eukaryotic?
a. Bactria
b. yeasts
c. molds
d. protozoa

a bacteria

Which microorganisms are used to make microbiological growth media?
a. bacteria
b. fungi
c. algae
d. protozoa

c algae

in which habitat would you most likely find archaea?
a. acidic hot springs
b. swamp mud
c. Great Salt Lake
d. all of the above

d all of the above

of the following scientists, who first promulgated the theory of abiogenesis?
a. aristotle
b. pasteur
c. Needham
d. spallanzani

a aristotle

Which of the following scientists hypothesized that a bacterial colony arises from a single bacterial cell?
antoni van leeuwenhoek
louis pasteur
robert koch
richard petri

c robert koch

Which scientist first hypothesized that medical personnel can infect patients with pathogens?

Ignaz Semmelweis

Leeuwenhoek described microorganisms as?

animalcules

which of the following favored the theory of spontaneous generation?
Spallanazani
needham
pasteur
koch

Needham

a scientist who studies the role of microorganisms in the environment is?

an environmental microbiologist

the laboratory of Robert Koch contributed which of the following to the field of microbiology?
simple staining technique
use of Petri dishes
first photomicrograph of bacteria
all of the above

all of the above

which of the following structures have not electrical charge?
protons
neutrons
electrons
ions

b

the atomic mass of an atom most closely approximates the sum of the masses of all its?

d

one isotope of iodine differs from another in?

c

which of the following is NOT an organic compound?
monosaccaride
formaldehyde
water
steroid

c

which of the following terms most correctly describes the bonds in a molecule of water?
nonpolar covalent bond
polar covalent bond
ionic bond
hydrogen bond

b

in water, cations and anions of salts disassociate from one another and become surrounded by water molecules. In this state, the ions are also called?

c

proteins are polymers of?

a

Which of the following are hydrophobic organic molecules?
proteins
carbohydrates
lipids
nucleic acids

c

the outermost electron shell of an atom is known as the __shell

valence

the type of chemical bond between atoms with nearly equal electronegativities is called a(n) ___ bond.

nonpolar covalent

the principal short-term energy storage molecule in cells is ___.

ATP

the most common long-term energy storage molecule is ___.

Fat

groups of atoms such as NH2 or OH that appear in certain common arrangements are called ___.

functional groups

the reverse of dehydration synthesis is ___.

hydrolysis

reactions that release energy are called ___ reactions

exothermic

all chemical reactions begin with reactants and result in new molecules called ___.

products

the ___ scale is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution

pH

a nucleic acid containing the base uracil would also contain ___ sugar.

ribose

A cell may allow a large or charged chemical to move across the cytoplasmic membrane, down the chemical's electrical and chemical gradients, in a process called

facilitated diffusion

which of the following statements concerning growth and reproduction is NOT true?
growth and reproduction may occur Simultaneously in living organisms
A living organism must reproduce to be considered alive
Living things may stop growing and reproducing, yet still be alive
Normally, living organisms have the ability to grow and reproduce themselves

A living organism must reproduce to be considered alive

A "9+2" arrangement of microtubules is seen in

eukaryotic flagella

which of the following is most associated with diffusion?
symports
antiports
carrier proteins
endocytosis

carrier proteins

which of the following is NOT associated with prokaryotic organisms?
Nucleoid
glycocalyx
cilia
circular DNA

cilia

which of the following is true of Svedbergs?
They are not exact but are useful for comparisons.
They are abbreviated "sv".
They are prokaryotic in nature but exhibit some eukaryotic characteristics.
They are an expression of sedimentation rate during high-speed centrifugation.

They are an expression of sedimentation rate during high-speed centrifugation.

which of the following statements is true?
The cell walls of bacteria are composed of peptidoglycan.
Peptidoglycan is a fatty acid.
Gram-positive bacterial walls have a relatively thin layer of peptidoglycan anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane by teichoic acids.
Pepridoglycan is found mainly in the cell walls of fungi, algae, and plants.

The cell walls of bacteria are composed of peptidoglycan.

Which of the following is NOT a function of a glycocalyx?
It forms pseudopodia for faster mobility of an organism.
It can protect a bacterial cell from drying out.
It hides a bacterial cell from other cells.
It allows a bacterium to stick to a host.

It forms pseudopodia for faster mobility of an organism.

Bacterial flagella
A. are canchored to the cell by a basal body.
B. are composed of hami.
C. are surrounded by an extension of the cytoplasmic membrane.
D. are composed of tubulin in hollow microtubules in a "9+2" arrangement

A. are canchored to the cell by a basal body.

which cellular structure is important in classifying a bacterial species as Gram-positive or Gram-negative?

Cell wall

A Gram-negative cell is moving uric acid across the cytoplasmic membrane against its chemical gradient. Which of the following statements is true?
A. the exterior of the cell is probably electrically negative compared to the interior of the cell.
B. Th acid probably moves by a passive means such as facilitated diffusion
C. The acid moves by an active process such as active transport.
D. The movement of the acid requires phagocytosis

C. The acid moves by an active process such as active transport.

Gram-positive bacteria
A. have a thick cell wall, which retains crystal violet dye.
B. contain teichoic acids in their cell walls
C. appear purple after Gram staining
D. all of the above

D. all of the above

Endospores
A. are reproductive structures of some bacteria
B. occur in some archaea
C. can cause shock, fever, and inflammation
D are dormant, resistant cells

D are dormant, resistant cells

Inclusion have been found to contain

sulfur globules

Dipicolinic acid is an important component of

endospores

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