geography; its nature and prespectives

Created by Scarlettfaery42 

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terms and definitions

Changing Attributes of a place (Built Landscape)

an area of land represented by its features and patterns of human occupation and use of natural resources

Changing Attributes of a place (Sequent occupance)

The succeeding stages of human inhabitation over time on one site. Each stage is seen as being established by its predecessor, although the sequence will almost certainly be interrupted by outside forces

Cultural Attributes (Cultural landscape)

Provides a sense of place and identity; they map our relationship with the land over time; and they are part of our national heritage and each of our lives.

Density (arithmetric)

the total number of people divided by the total land area

Density (physiological)

Describes how often an object occurs within a given area or space

Diffusion (Hearth)

Idea or innovation that spreads outward

Diffusion (Relocation)

The spread of an idea through the physical movement of people from one place to another, such as the spread of Amish communities through the United States.

Diffusion (expansion)

The spread of innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination.

Diffusion (Hierarchical)

The spread of ideas from a small hearth to a big civilization. ( or reversed)

Diffusion (Contagious)

The spread of ideas across a lot of people really fast, like a disease.

Diffusion (Stimulus)

The spread of ideas with something stimulating the spread.

Direction (absolute)

North, East, South, West

Direction (Relative)

The direction of flow, can apply to diffusion. [path, route, track]

Dispersion and Concentration (Dispersed/Scattered)

If objects in an area are relatively far apart

Dispersion and Concentration (Clustered/ Agglomerated)

If the objects in an area are close together

Distance (relative)

socially constructed

Distance (absolute)

measured by miles

Distribution

the spatial property of being scattered about over an area or volume

Environmental determinism

the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development

Location (Absolute)

Is the exact spot where something is on the earth represented by longitude and latitude or a street address.

Location (relative)

How one place is connected to another by direction, time, distance and landmark.

Location (site)

a physical character of a place, such as characteristics like climate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation, latitude, and elevation

Location (situation)

The location of a place relative to other places; valuable to indicate location: finding an unfamiliar place and understanding its importance by comparing location with familiar one and learning their accessibility to other places

Location (Place name)

the name of a geographical location, such as a town

Pattern (Linear)

straight pattern, ex. houses along a street

Pattern (Centralized)

clustered or concentrated at a certain place

Pattern (random)

a pattern with no specific order or logic behind its arrangement

Physical Attributes (Natural landscape)

unaffected by human activity

Possibilism

The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.

Region (formal/uniform)

A Region marked by relative uniformity of characteristics; congressional districts are uniform regions.

Region (functional/nodal)

A region defined by a social or economic function that occurs between the node or focal point and the surrounding areas.

Region (perceptual/vernacular)

It is an area that exists in the minds of a society, for example the American "South"

Scale (implied degree of generalization)

the size of an area student, from local to global.

size

the physical magnitude of something (how big it is)

Spatial

Of or pertaining to space on the earths surface

Spatial Interaction (accessibility)

the opportunity for contact or interaction from a given point or location, in relation to other locations.

Spatial Interaction (connectivity)

the directness of routes linking pairs of places; an indication of the degree of internal connection in a transport network; all of the tangible and intangible means of connection and communication between places.

Spatial Interaction (network)

the areal pattern of sets of places and the routes (links) connecting them along which movement can take place.

Spatial Interaction (distance decay)

the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.

Spatial Interaction (friction of distance)

a measure of the retarding or restricting effect of distance on spatial interaction; the greater the distance, the greater the "friction" and the less the interaction or exchange, or the greater the cost of achieving the exchange.

Spatial Interaction (time-space compression)

an influence on the rate of expansion diffusion of an idea, observing that the spread or acceptance of an idea is usually delayed as distance from the source of the innovation increases.

distortion

a change in the shape, size, or position of a place when it is shown on a map

Geographic Information system

a computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data

Global Positioning system

a navigational system involving satellites and computers that can determine the latitude and longitude of a receiver on Earth by computing the time difference for signals from different satellites to reach the receiver

Grid (north and south poles)

the very top and bottom of the earth where all the latitude lines meet

Grid (latitude)

vertical lines running along the earth to measure distance and time

Grid (parallel)

lines equally spaced from each other

Grid (equator)

the very center of the earth where the longitude line is the longest

longitude

an imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth passing through the north and south poles at right angles to the equator

meridian

an imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth passing through the north and south poles at right angles to the equator

prime meridian

meridian at zero degree longitude from which east and west are reckoned (usually the Greenwich longitude in England)

international date line

an imaginary line on the surface of the earth following (approximately) the 180th meridian

map

The tool most uniquely identified with geography

Map scale

distance on map relative to distance on earth

Thematic

relating to or constituting a topic of discourse

Statistical

of or relating to statistics

cartogram

map in which some thematic mapping variable is substituted for land area (e.g., GDP)

dot map

maps where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon such as population

choropleth

thematic map in which areas are shaded or patterned in proportion to the measurement of the statistical variable being displayed (e.g., population density)

isoline

map line that connects points of equal or very similar values

mental map

An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.

projection

a prediction made by extrapolating from past observations

time zones

the 24 zones of different time into which the Earth is divided

remote sensing

the acquisition of data about earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods

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