Prentice Hall Math course 2

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absolute value

the xxx of a number is its distance from 0 on a number line.

compatible numbers

are numbers that are easy to compute mentally. You can use xxxxxx to estimate.

integers

are the set of positive whole numbers, their opposites, and zero

mean

the xxx of a set of data is the sum of the data divided by the number of data items

median

the middle value when the data is arranged in numerical order

mode

the item that occurs with the greatest frequency (may have more than one xxxx, or no xxxx)

opposites

two numbers that are the same distance from 0 on a number line, but in opposite directions

order of operations

1.work inside grouping symbols2.multiply and divide from left to right3.add and subtract from left to right

outlier

is the data item that is much higher or much lower than the other items in the set

range

the difference between the greatest and the least values

additive inverse

two numbers with a sum of 0 (8,-8)

algebraic expression

mathematical phrase with at least one variable

equation

mathematical sentence with an equal sign

open sentence

an equation with one or more variables (p + 12 = 34)

inequality

a mathematical sentence that contains < > <_ <_ or not equal is an inequality

inverse operations

operations that undo each other

solution of an equation

is a value for a variable that makes an equation true

solution of an inequality

is any value that makes the inequality true. Can include many numbers.

variable

a symbol that represents one or more numbers.

composite number

a whole number greater than 1 that has more than two factors

divisible

one whole number is xxxx by a second whole number if the remainder is 0 when you divide the 1st number by the 2nd

equivalent fractions

fractions that name the same amount are xxxx (3/4, 6/8, 9/12)

exponent

tells how many times a number, or base, is used as a factor

greatest common factor

of two or more numbers is the greatest number that is a factor of all the numbers

improper fraction

has a numerator that is greater than or equal to its denominator (5/2,12/12, 8/3)

least common denominator

of two or more fractions is the least common multiple of their denominators

least common multiple

of two or more numbers is the least multiple that is common to all the numbers (lcm of 3 and 4 is 12)

mixed number

sum of a whole number and a fraction

prime number

a whole number with exactly two factors, 1 and the number itself. the number 1 is neither prime or composite

rational number

a number that can be written as a quotient of two integers, where the divisor is not 0. 2/5, -6, 3 1/2,

repeating decimal

if the same block of digits in a decimal repeats without end, the decimal is a xxx

terminating decimal

a decimal that stops, or terminates is a xxxx

benchmark

a xxxx is a convenient number used to replace fractions that are less than 1. 7/8 ---> 1, 4/9--->1/2

precision

the xxxx of a measurement refers to its degree of exactness. The marks on a scale or other intrument tell you the xxxx that is possible

reciprocal

two numbers are xxxx if their product is 1. To divide by a fraction, multiply by its XXXX

cross products

for two ratios, the xxxxx are found by multiplying the denominator of one ratio by the numerator of the other ratio

equal ratios

two ratios that name the same number are xxxx.18:30 and 9:15 are XXX

indirect measurement

you can use XXX to measure distances that are difficult to measure directly. Use proportions and similar triangles

polygon

a closed plane figure formed by three or more line segments that do not cross

proportion

a XXX is an equation stating that two ratios are equal, 6/8 = 9/12

rate

a XXX is a ratio that compares two quantities measured in different units ( 233words/2minutes)

scale drawing

a XXX is an enlarged or reduced drawing of an object that is similar to the actual object

similar polygons

2 polygons are XXX if 1)corresponding angles have the same measure, and 2)the lengths of corresponding sides form equal ratios

ratio

a comparison of two quantities by division, 5 to 24, 5:24, 5/24

scale

ratio that compares a length in a drawing to the corresponding length in the actual object

unit price

a unit rate that gives the cost per unit is a XXXX

unit rate

the rate for one unit of a given quantity is the XXX

commission

commission = commission rate X sales

discount

difference between the orig. price and the sale price

markup

the difference between the selling price and the orig. cost, or the store's cost, of an item is called the XXX

percent

a XXX is a ratio that compares a number to 100. 25/100 is 25%

percent of change

the XXX is the percent a quantity increases or decreases from its original amount. amount of change/original amount = percent of change/100

acute angle

angle between 0 and 90

adjacent angle

share a vertex and a side but have no interior points in common

angle bisector

a ray that divides an angle into two congruent angles

central angle

an angle with its vertex at the center of a circle

equilateral triangle

triangle with three congruent sides

isosceles triangle

tri with at least 2 congruent sides

obtuse angle

between 90 and 180

polygon

a closed plane figure with sides formed by three or more line segments. the sides only meet at their endpoints

regular polygon

a polygon with all sides congruent and all angles congruent

right angle

90 angle

scalene triangle

no congruent sides

skew lines

lines that lie in different planes. they are neither parallel nor intersecting

straight angle

180

vertical angles

formed by two intersecting lines and are opposite each other. xxx angles have equal measures.

area

the XX of a figure is the number of square units a figure encloses

circumference

is the distance around a circle

cylinder

has two congruent parallel bases that are circles. the height of a xxx is the length of a perpendicular segment that joins the bases

hypotenuse

in a right triangle, the two shortest sides are legs. the side oppposite the 90 angle is the hypotenuse

irrational number

a number that cannot be written as a ratio of two integers. As decimals, xxx numbers neither terminate or repeat

net

a two-dimensional pattern that you can fold to from a 3-dim. figure

prism

a 3-dim figure with 2 parallel and congruent polygonal faces, called bases. the other faces are rectangles.

pythagorean theorem

in any right triangle, the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse

square root

inverse of squaring a number is finding the XXX

surface area

XX of a prism is the sum of the areas of its faces - square units

volume

xx of a 3 dim. figure is the number of cubic units needed to fill the space inside the figure

cube

rectangular prism with faces that are squares

cone

one circular base, and one vertex

pyramid

3 dim. figure with triangular faces that meet at one point,vertex, and a base that is a polygon. named for the shape of the base

sphere

set of all points in space that are the same distance from a center point

rhombus

parallelogram with 4 congruent sides

square

parallelogram with 4 right angles and 4 congruent sides

rectangle

parallelogram with 4 right angles

parallelogram

quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite sides parallel 3 special types:rectangle,rhombus,square

trapezoid

quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides

dodecagon

12

heptagon

7

acute triangle

triangle with 3 acute angles

obtuse triangle

triangle with 1 obtuse angle

vertical angle

X top and bottom angles are vertical and are congruent

diagonal

line segment that connects two non-adjacent vertices

segment

part of a line with 2 endpoints and all points in between

angle

formed by two rays with a common endpoint

arc

is a part of a circle

base

when a number is written in exponential form, the number that is used as a factor is the base.

bases

parallel and congruent polygonal faces

bisect

to divide an angle into two congruent angles

central angle

an angle with its vertex at the center of a circle

chord

a segment that has both endpoints on a circle

circle

set of points in a plane that are all the same distance from a given point called the center

complementary angles

the sum of the measures of two angles is 90

compass

geometric tool used to draw circles and arcs

congruent

have the same length

congruent angles

angles with equal measure

congruent polygons

polygons with the same size and shape

cubic unit

is a cube with edges one unit long

degree

the measures of an angle

diameter

a segment that passes through the center of a circle and has both endpoints on the circle

edge

each segment formed by the intersection of two faces

exterior angle

angle formed by intersecting lines outside of the polygon

face

a flat surface shaped like a polygon

height

the perpendicular distance from a base to another

intersecting lines

have exactly one point in common

irregular polygon

sides that are not all congruent and/or angles that are not all congruent

legs

the 2 sides of a right triangle that form the right angle

line

a series of points that extend in two opposite directions without end. You name a line by any two points on the line or a lowercase letter.

line of symmetry

when one side is the mirror image of the other side

midpoint

a segment is the point that divides the segment into two segments of equal length

net

a net is a two dimensional pattern that can be folded to form a three-dim. figure

parallel lines

lines in the same plane that never intersect

perfect square

a number that is the square of an integer

perpendicular lines

intersect to form right angles

perpendicular bisector

perpendicular to a segment

pi

is the ratio of a circle's circumference C to its diameter d. (3.14 or 22/7 or )

plane

a flat surface that extends indefinitely in all directions and has no thickness

point

indicates location. a XXX has no size. you name a XXX by a capital letter

quadrilateral

polygon with 4 sides

radical sign

indicates the nonnegative square root of a number

radius

a segment that connects the center of a circle to the circle

ray

is part of a line with one endpoint and all the points of the line on one side of the endpoint. you name a ray using two points, starting with the endpoint

rectangle

parallelogram with right angles

rectangular prism

prism with rectangular base

rhombus

parallelogram with 4 congruent sides

segment bisector

is a line, segment, or ray that goes through the midpoint of a segment

semicircle

an arc that is half of the circumference of a circle

square

to multiply a number by itself

square root

the inverse of squaring a number

supplementary angles

the sum is 180

three-dim. figure

solid, a figure that does not lie in a plane

trapezoid

quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides

triangle

polygon with 3 sides

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