# Prentice Hall Math course 2

### 157 terms by karenbecker

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### absolute value

the xxx of a number is its distance from 0 on a number line.

### compatible numbers

are numbers that are easy to compute mentally. You can use xxxxxx to estimate.

### integers

are the set of positive whole numbers, their opposites, and zero

### mean

the xxx of a set of data is the sum of the data divided by the number of data items

### median

the middle value when the data is arranged in numerical order

### mode

the item that occurs with the greatest frequency (may have more than one xxxx, or no xxxx)

### opposites

two numbers that are the same distance from 0 on a number line, but in opposite directions

### order of operations

1.work inside grouping symbols2.multiply and divide from left to right3.add and subtract from left to right

### outlier

is the data item that is much higher or much lower than the other items in the set

### range

the difference between the greatest and the least values

two numbers with a sum of 0 (8,-8)

### algebraic expression

mathematical phrase with at least one variable

### equation

mathematical sentence with an equal sign

### open sentence

an equation with one or more variables (p + 12 = 34)

### inequality

a mathematical sentence that contains < > <_ <_ or not equal is an inequality

### inverse operations

operations that undo each other

### solution of an equation

is a value for a variable that makes an equation true

### solution of an inequality

is any value that makes the inequality true. Can include many numbers.

### variable

a symbol that represents one or more numbers.

### composite number

a whole number greater than 1 that has more than two factors

### divisible

one whole number is xxxx by a second whole number if the remainder is 0 when you divide the 1st number by the 2nd

### equivalent fractions

fractions that name the same amount are xxxx (3/4, 6/8, 9/12)

### exponent

tells how many times a number, or base, is used as a factor

### greatest common factor

of two or more numbers is the greatest number that is a factor of all the numbers

### improper fraction

has a numerator that is greater than or equal to its denominator (5/2,12/12, 8/3)

### least common denominator

of two or more fractions is the least common multiple of their denominators

### least common multiple

of two or more numbers is the least multiple that is common to all the numbers (lcm of 3 and 4 is 12)

### mixed number

sum of a whole number and a fraction

### prime number

a whole number with exactly two factors, 1 and the number itself. the number 1 is neither prime or composite

### rational number

a number that can be written as a quotient of two integers, where the divisor is not 0. 2/5, -6, 3 1/2,

### repeating decimal

if the same block of digits in a decimal repeats without end, the decimal is a xxx

### terminating decimal

a decimal that stops, or terminates is a xxxx

### benchmark

a xxxx is a convenient number used to replace fractions that are less than 1. 7/8 ---> 1, 4/9--->1/2

### precision

the xxxx of a measurement refers to its degree of exactness. The marks on a scale or other intrument tell you the xxxx that is possible

### reciprocal

two numbers are xxxx if their product is 1. To divide by a fraction, multiply by its XXXX

### cross products

for two ratios, the xxxxx are found by multiplying the denominator of one ratio by the numerator of the other ratio

### equal ratios

two ratios that name the same number are xxxx.18:30 and 9:15 are XXX

### indirect measurement

you can use XXX to measure distances that are difficult to measure directly. Use proportions and similar triangles

### polygon

a closed plane figure formed by three or more line segments that do not cross

### proportion

a XXX is an equation stating that two ratios are equal, 6/8 = 9/12

### rate

a XXX is a ratio that compares two quantities measured in different units ( 233words/2minutes)

### scale drawing

a XXX is an enlarged or reduced drawing of an object that is similar to the actual object

### similar polygons

2 polygons are XXX if 1)corresponding angles have the same measure, and 2)the lengths of corresponding sides form equal ratios

### ratio

a comparison of two quantities by division, 5 to 24, 5:24, 5/24

### scale

ratio that compares a length in a drawing to the corresponding length in the actual object

### unit price

a unit rate that gives the cost per unit is a XXXX

### unit rate

the rate for one unit of a given quantity is the XXX

### commission

commission = commission rate X sales

### discount

difference between the orig. price and the sale price

### markup

the difference between the selling price and the orig. cost, or the store's cost, of an item is called the XXX

### percent

a XXX is a ratio that compares a number to 100. 25/100 is 25%

### percent of change

the XXX is the percent a quantity increases or decreases from its original amount. amount of change/original amount = percent of change/100

### acute angle

angle between 0 and 90

share a vertex and a side but have no interior points in common

### angle bisector

a ray that divides an angle into two congruent angles

### central angle

an angle with its vertex at the center of a circle

### equilateral triangle

triangle with three congruent sides

### isosceles triangle

tri with at least 2 congruent sides

### obtuse angle

between 90 and 180

### polygon

a closed plane figure with sides formed by three or more line segments. the sides only meet at their endpoints

### regular polygon

a polygon with all sides congruent and all angles congruent

90 angle

### scalene triangle

no congruent sides

### skew lines

lines that lie in different planes. they are neither parallel nor intersecting

180

### vertical angles

formed by two intersecting lines and are opposite each other. xxx angles have equal measures.

### area

the XX of a figure is the number of square units a figure encloses

### circumference

is the distance around a circle

### cylinder

has two congruent parallel bases that are circles. the height of a xxx is the length of a perpendicular segment that joins the bases

### hypotenuse

in a right triangle, the two shortest sides are legs. the side oppposite the 90 angle is the hypotenuse

### irrational number

a number that cannot be written as a ratio of two integers. As decimals, xxx numbers neither terminate or repeat

### net

a two-dimensional pattern that you can fold to from a 3-dim. figure

### prism

a 3-dim figure with 2 parallel and congruent polygonal faces, called bases. the other faces are rectangles.

### pythagorean theorem

in any right triangle, the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse

### square root

inverse of squaring a number is finding the XXX

### surface area

XX of a prism is the sum of the areas of its faces - square units

### volume

xx of a 3 dim. figure is the number of cubic units needed to fill the space inside the figure

ten

6

8

5

4

3

### cube

rectangular prism with faces that are squares

### cone

one circular base, and one vertex

### pyramid

3 dim. figure with triangular faces that meet at one point,vertex, and a base that is a polygon. named for the shape of the base

### sphere

set of all points in space that are the same distance from a center point

### rhombus

parallelogram with 4 congruent sides

### square

parallelogram with 4 right angles and 4 congruent sides

### rectangle

parallelogram with 4 right angles

### parallelogram

quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite sides parallel 3 special types:rectangle,rhombus,square

### trapezoid

quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides

12

9

7

### acute triangle

triangle with 3 acute angles

### obtuse triangle

triangle with 1 obtuse angle

### vertical angle

X top and bottom angles are vertical and are congruent

### diagonal

line segment that connects two non-adjacent vertices

### segment

part of a line with 2 endpoints and all points in between

### angle

formed by two rays with a common endpoint

### arc

is a part of a circle

### base

when a number is written in exponential form, the number that is used as a factor is the base.

### bases

parallel and congruent polygonal faces

### bisect

to divide an angle into two congruent angles

### central angle

an angle with its vertex at the center of a circle

### chord

a segment that has both endpoints on a circle

### circle

set of points in a plane that are all the same distance from a given point called the center

### complementary angles

the sum of the measures of two angles is 90

### compass

geometric tool used to draw circles and arcs

### congruent

have the same length

### congruent angles

angles with equal measure

### congruent polygons

polygons with the same size and shape

### cubic unit

is a cube with edges one unit long

### degree

the measures of an angle

### diameter

a segment that passes through the center of a circle and has both endpoints on the circle

### edge

each segment formed by the intersection of two faces

### exterior angle

angle formed by intersecting lines outside of the polygon

### face

a flat surface shaped like a polygon

### height

the perpendicular distance from a base to another

### intersecting lines

have exactly one point in common

### irregular polygon

sides that are not all congruent and/or angles that are not all congruent

### legs

the 2 sides of a right triangle that form the right angle

### line

a series of points that extend in two opposite directions without end. You name a line by any two points on the line or a lowercase letter.

### line of symmetry

when one side is the mirror image of the other side

### midpoint

a segment is the point that divides the segment into two segments of equal length

### net

a net is a two dimensional pattern that can be folded to form a three-dim. figure

### parallel lines

lines in the same plane that never intersect

### perfect square

a number that is the square of an integer

### perpendicular lines

intersect to form right angles

### perpendicular bisector

perpendicular to a segment

### pi

is the ratio of a circle's circumference C to its diameter d. (3.14 or 22/7 or )

### plane

a flat surface that extends indefinitely in all directions and has no thickness

### point

indicates location. a XXX has no size. you name a XXX by a capital letter

polygon with 4 sides

indicates the nonnegative square root of a number

a segment that connects the center of a circle to the circle

### ray

is part of a line with one endpoint and all the points of the line on one side of the endpoint. you name a ray using two points, starting with the endpoint

### rectangle

parallelogram with right angles

### rectangular prism

prism with rectangular base

### rhombus

parallelogram with 4 congruent sides

### segment bisector

is a line, segment, or ray that goes through the midpoint of a segment

### semicircle

an arc that is half of the circumference of a circle

### square

to multiply a number by itself

### square root

the inverse of squaring a number

the sum is 180

### three-dim. figure

solid, a figure that does not lie in a plane

### trapezoid

quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides

### triangle

polygon with 3 sides

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