midterm-ap psych 18 and prologue

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contemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of

behavior and mental processes (thoughts and emotions)

the self reflective observation of one's own sensations and feelings

introspection

who believed that the mind and body are distinct and separable

socrates plato and descartes

the early school of psychology known as functionalism was developed by

james

dr. ochoa develops tests to accurately identify the most qualified job applicants in a large manufacturing firm. which psychological specialty does Dr. Ochoa's work best represent?

industrial/organizational psychology

working in a community mental health center, Dr. thatcher treats adults who suffer from severe depression. Dr. thrater is most likely a

clinical psychologist

a theoretical perspective in psychology can be like a two-dimensional view of a three-demensional object because each perspective is

limited in its scope

humanistic psychologist focused attention on the importance of

healthy growth potential

the survival of organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as

natural selection

professor crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference enhanced the survival of our ancestors' genes. this viewpoint best illustrates the

evolutionary perspective

which perspective is most directly concerned with assessing the relative impact of both nature and nurture on our psychological traits?

behavior genetics

mrs. thompson believes that her son has become an excellent student because she consistenly uses praise and affection to stimulate his learning efforts. her belief best illustrates a

behavioral perspective

a clinical psychologist who explains behavior in terms of unconscious drives and conflicts is employing a

psychodynamic perspective

which perspective is most directly concerned with how the physical properties of the brain influence behaviors and mental states?

neuroscience

the behavioral perspective is most likely to emphasize the importance of

learning

the distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on

unconscious conflicts

a concern with the reasoning processes that contribute to effective problem solving is most characteristic of the

cognitive perspective

dr. macpherson believs that the way students organize and think about the information in their textbooks will strongly influence their ability to later remember and use what they have studied. dr. macphersons ideas most directly exemplify the

cognitive perspective

dr. wilson attributes the delinquent behaviors of many teens to the pressures associated with being members of street gangs. her account best illustras a

social-cultural perspective

the specialist most likely to have a medical degree is an

psychiatrist

which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence and relate to one another?

social psychology

the tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposistions on anothers behavior is called

the fundamental attribution error

rhonda has just learned that her neighbor patricia was involved in an automobile accident at a nearby intersection. the tendencey to make the ______ may lead rhonda to conclude patricia's recklessness has finally gotten her into trouble

fundamental attribution error

the tendencey for intial complance with a small request to facilitate subsequent compliance with a larger request is known as the

foot-in-the-door phenomenon

after giving in to her friends' request that she drink alcohol with them, 16 year-old jessica found that she couldnt resist the pressure they exerted on her to try heroin. her experiences bestillustrates

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon

which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes?

cognitive dissonance theory

during a test abe impulsively copied several answers from a nearby students paper. he felt very uncomfortable about having done this until he convinced himself that copying answers is not wrong if classmates are careless enoguh to expose their test sheets. which theory best expains why abe adopted this new attitude?

cognitive dissonance theory

solomon asch asked people to identify which of three comparison lines was identical to a standard line. his research was designed to study

conformity

solomon asch reported that individuals conformed to a group's judgment of the lengths of lines

even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect

luella publicly agrees with her seventh grade classmates that parents should allow 13 year olds to date. later that day, she writes in her diary that she actually believes parents should prohibit kids from dating until they are at least 15 years old. luellas public conformity to her classmates' opinion best illustrate sth power of

normative social influence

conformity resulting from the acceptance of others' opinions about reality is said to be a response to

informational social influence

the gradually escalating levels of destructive obedience in the milgram experiments best illustrate one of the potential dangers of

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon

to perform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others

social facilitation

expert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots when alone. when fourpeople watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots this best illustrates

social facilitation

on which of the following tasks would the presence of observers be least likely to tend ot better and faster performance

solving a crossword puzzle

the tendency for people to exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal is known as

social loafing

university students were observed to pull harder on a rope when they thought they were pulling alone than when they thought three others were pulling with them on the same rope this best illustrates

social loafing

a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group sitations that foster arousal and anonymity

deindividuation

when NYU women were dressed in ku klux klan style hoods, they demonstrated significantly more aggression. this finding best explained in terms of

deindividuation

the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through group discussion

group polarization

nora, ko, ian and may each think that ms. akey may be a slightly better teach than mr. schwenke. after discussing why each oth them believes this to be so, they all conclude that ms. akey is definitely a much better teacher than mr. schwenke. this episode provides an example of

group polarization

an overwhelming desire for harmony in a decision-making group increases the possiblility of

group think

making judgments prior to knowing; an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members

prejudice

when armen first heard the hit song "Gotta Love It" he wasnt at all sure he liked it. the more he heard it played howeer the more he enjoyed it. armens reaction illustrates

the mere exposure effect

arturo believes that most young women from california are extremely good looking and that extremely good looking women are usually selfish and egotistical. his beliefs are examples of

stereotypes

most children believe their school is better than the other schools in town this best illustrates

ingroup bias

ever since he lost his job because he was constantly late for work, richard has become increasingly hostile toward the "government bureaucrats who are leading the country toward bankruptcy" richards increasing prejudice is best explained in terms of

scapegoat theory

an eagerness to believe that victims of a natural disaster are being punished by God for their sins best illustrates a potential consequence of

the just-world phenomenon

when 12 year old jamilah saaw an old man lying on the sidewalk in apparent discomfort, he prepared to offer help. but when he notices several adults walk past the man, he concluded that the man did not need any help. his reaction most clearly illustrates

the bystander effect

the best explanation for the inaction of bystanders during the Kitty genovese murder is that they failed to

assume personal responsibility for helping the victim

the ideas of Francis Bacon provided an impetus for what came to be known as

empiricism

in 1942 reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. this incident illustrated that people are most like to be destrucitvely obedient when they perceive their orders to come from

legitimate authority figures

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